Mahan ar hesias Kankonik?


Phonetics


Kankonian has 28 consonants: ph, m, p, b, f, v, th, n, t, d, s, z, r, l, sh, zh, y, ng, k, g, kh, gh, *, hh, h, hw, w and tz.

K, P and T, a voiceless velar plosive (/k/), voiceless bilabial plosive (/p/), and voiceless alveolar plosive (/t/) respectively, are aspirated like the consonants in "kill" ([kh]), "pill" ([ph]) and "till" ([th]) at the beginnings of syllables: kashos, poilang, trai. They are unaspirated like the consonants in "skill" ([k]), "spill" ([p]) and "still" ([t]) when they come after S, SH, F or TH: stalaz, shpel, fkufwi, thkriz; or when they come after the vowel of a syllable: upik, likt, bolop, ort, adat. When a syllable begins with pt-, the P is aspirated but the T is not ([pht]): pta*, ptiang. Speakers should avoid turning a syllable-final T into a glottal stop the way people often do in English. Also take care to avoid turning a T between two vowels into a voiced alveolar flap, the way American English speakers do with words like "better" and "bottle". T should not be turned into a voiceless postalveolar affricate (like the CH in "church") when it comes before R.

B is a voiced bilabial plosive (/b/) like the sound in "boy", "band" and "carob": bein, sharab.

D is a voiced alveolar plosive (/d/) , as in "die", "doughnut" and "hand": dom, god.

F is like the sound in "finish", "flan" and "giraffe", a voiceless labiodental fricative (/f/): falaz, tzaf.

G is a voiced velar plosive (/g/), always hard like the "g" in "go", "gear" and "fatigue": gesh, mopiga.

H is pronounced like the English "h" in "hat", "hospital" and "deadhead" at the beginnings of syllables, a voiceless glottal fricative (/h/): heles, Hazumas.

L is always a voiced alveolar lateral as in "lake", "lose" and "linguine" (/l/), never a voiced velarized alveolar lateral as in "pull", "seal" or "economical": luoi, khatal.

* is how this site codes the character for the sound known as the lagma (taken from lambda and agma). The letter is called "*eti" by the Kankonians. This is a voiced velar lateral (/ʟ/) as in Hiw "rēvrōv": *ine, pa*aung.

M is a voiced bilabial nasal as in "money", "motorcycle" and "atom" (/m/): mongi, helemas.

N is pronounced as in "nice", "send" and "complication" -- a voiced alveolar nasal (/n/) -- in most places: nenetz, an. However, when it comes after the vowel in a syllable ending with K or KH it is pronounced as in "sink" and "sing", a voiced velar nasal (/ŋ/): blank, hankh, klandanks.

R is a voiced dental trill (/r/), rolled as in Spanish "rico": rimi, ar.

S is always soft as in "such", "sappiness" and "assimilative", a voiceless alveolar sibilant (/s/): seldu, heles.

V sounds like the sound in "van", "vampire" and "Steve", a voiced labiodental fricative (/v/): vithev, verim.

W is a voiced labiovelar semivowel (/w/), as in "water", "away" and "Ishikawa": wana, bwolwo. After an A in the middle of a word it may sound like the vowel in "power" (/au/): wawa.

Y is a voiced palatal semivowel (/j/), with the sound range and capacity of the English words "yet", "backyard" and "ayatollah": Yatzumi, inya, meya, shayam.

Z is like the pronunciation of the letter Z in "zoo", "sizzle" and "lobotomize", a voiced alveolar sibilant (/z/): zanzo, falaz.

KH is a voiceless velar fricative (/x/), pronounced like the "ch" in "Bach", "loch" and "Nachtmusik": khari, slakh.

GH is to G what KH is to K: a voiced velar fricative (/ɣ/), as in the native Arabic pronunciation of "ghoutra": ghiga, reghithio.

NG at the end of a word represents the letter for the sound in "sing", "doing" and "boomerang", a voiced velar nasal (/ŋ/): supung, poilang. In the middle of a root word, before a vowel, L, *, R or W, it is simply a transcription of the letter "n" followed by a hard "g" (noil and guda), like in "hungry": mongi, gingami, Inglish, dagangra. When a root has NG followed by another letter in the middle, or a root word that ends in NG is followed by a suffix, however, the NG is written with the agong in Kankonian script and pronounced as in "singer": hongku, syangtiy, tefing + -iz = tefingiz , izeng + -os = izengos. At the beginning of borrowed words, it sounds like the NG in "Nguyen": Ngabrik.

PH is pronounced as a raspberry sound, a voiceless linguolabial trill: phahus, haphlaph.

SH is the voiceless postalveolar sibilant (/ʃ/) in "she", "Josh" and "shillelagh": shukh, homeish.

TH is always the voiceless dental fricative (/θ/) in "think", "math" and "atheist": thesh, tethes.

TZ is pronounced as in the words "schnitzel", "klutz" and "blitzkrieg", a voiceless alveolar affricate (/ts/): tzopu, ransatz.

ZH is a combination that resembles the "s" in "vision", the "z" in "azure", the "ss" in "fission", the "ti" in "equation", the "g" in "genre", the "j" in "rajah", the "ci" in "coercion" and the "k" in "Peking", the voiced postalveolar sibilant (/ʒ/): tzazhur, zoizhatzu.

HH (or two hus) represents a voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/), like the HH in Arabic "wahhid": hhit.

HW, written as hu wul in Kankonian letters, sounds like the "wh" in "where", "whine" and "why" when spoken by people for whom they are not homophonous with "wear", "wine" and "Y", a voiceless labiovelar semivowel (/ʍ/): hwel, uhwas.

TSH, DZH and DZ sometimes appear; these are pronounced as affricates like TZ, but unlike TZ they do not get their own letters in the native Kankonian script, and are written as testa shekh, dand zhedi, and dand zeki respectively. TSH is a voiceless postalveolar affricate (/tʃ/) as in "change" and "bench", DZH a voiced postalveolar affricate (/dʒ/) as in "junk" and "edge", and DZ a voiced alveolar affricate (/dz/) as in "adze" and "kids": tshiu, kratsh, dzhiu, adkaidzh, dzipu, khemedz.

A less common affricate is PF. PF is sometimes pronounced /pf/, but is usually a voiceless bilabial affricate as in German "Pfund" (/pɸ/): pfofo, mapf.

A marginal consonant is the glottal stop (/ʔ/), represented in the Romanization of Kankonian by an apostrophe. This is the sound between the A and I in "subpoenaing": etanta'isatfed, ho'i. Compare "vai" [vai] (vaic) with "va'i" [ˈvaʔi] (fei).

Of the vowels:

Kankonian has 7 vowels: i, e, oer, a, ou, u and o, plus 5 diphthongs: ai, au, ei, eu and oi.

A is like the "a" in the Spanish pronunciation of "taco", "casa" and "chica", an open front unrounded vowel (/a/). This is halfway between the A in "cat" and the A in "water"; think of the A in the French song "Alouette" if you cannot get the hang of it. It also resembles the A in the Philadelphian pronunciation of such words as "path" and "glass": daspam, Kankonia.

E is like that in "end", "yes" and "ebony", an open-mid front unrounded vowel (/ɛ/): Durben, esin; but is a close-mid front unrounded vowel ([e]) like in the Spanish pronunciation of "compadre" at the end of words, before "a" or "o", or before "r": , pure, hashea, tzefratzeo, fanfer.

I is like the vowel in "eat", "feed" and "machine", a close front unrounded vowel (/i/): prin, wiri; but before NG or NK it is a near-close near-front unrounded vowel ([ɪ]) like the vowel in "sit", "risk" and "myth": woving, linkish.

O is pronounced like the long "o" in "over", "no" and "photo" (the diphthong /ou/): ob, phodos. Before "r" it is pronounced like the "o" in "port", "former" and "Gorgon" (an open-mid back rounded vowel, [ɔ]) when -or is at the end of a word or there is a consonant after the "r", or when it appears in an accented syllable before a vowel: storman, sator, manoros. It is pronounced as the long "o" in "over" before "r" and a vowel when it appears in an unaccented syllable: phoroish.

U is like the "u" in "rude", "lubricate" and "prosciutto", a close back rounded vowel (/u/): pumus, Kupulshas.

OU represents a sound formed at the back of the mouth like the dotless i in Turkish "altı", a close back unrounded vowel (/ɯ/). In some parts of Southern Hegheos, however, it is still pronounced like a U with the tongue root retracted: hous, wouw.

OER is like the "eu" in French "beurre", an open-mid front rounded vowel (/œ/), plus an R (/r/): stoern. It should be noted that the R here is a voiced dental trill, the Kankonian R, not a voiced uvular fricative like in French or German.

AI sounds like the vowel in "high", "type" and "mai-tai", the diphthong /ai/: duwain, daitrok.

AU is like the vowels in "out", "now" and "sauerkraut", the diphthong /au/: autran, haues.

EI is like the vowel in "play", "cake" and "weigh", the diphthong /ei/: sheiz, gweimo. Before "r", however, the E and I are pronounced as two different syllables: deir.

EU is a sound that appeared after the importation of new words from languages like Povoian. It sounds like the Eŭ in Esperanto "neŭtrala", the diphthong /eu/: shwebreut, euprari.

OI is like the diphthongs in "oil", "boy" and "La Jolla", the diphthong /ɔi/: tzoi, hoimas.

Vowel length is not phonemic in Kankonian.

In the combination AH at the end of a word or before a consonant, the H is silent (although at the end of a word, the last syllable will take the accent): aikhah, bahp.

When I is followed by Y, the accent is on the last syllable: gediy (ge-DIY).

The letter sequence AHA is usually pronounced like A in modern speech: wahaz, mahan, blahatz. The U in "fuir" is usually pronounced like a W (as if it were "fwir"). Similarly, "euer" is pronounced as two syllables today, with the U sounding like a W.

A hyphen is used to indicate that two letters are to be pronounced separately: blat-hel is pronounced (blat-HEL) with the TH as in "pothead" and not (bla-THEL) with the TH as in "think", while khas-hak is pronounced (khas-HAK) with the SH as in "grasshopper" and not (kha-SHAK) with the SH as in "short".

Words are accented on the penultimate syllable if they end in -a, -e, -i, -o, -u, -ou, a single vowel plus -s, or -ar (except kamar), as well as for two-syllable words that end in -tz: bwolwo (BWOL-wo), begini (be-GI-ni), hilis (HI-lis), yayar (YAY-ar), ransatz (RAN-satz). Kyu (five) is accented as the second part of a larger number: dernkyu (dern-KYU). Words are also accented on the penultimate syllable if they end in the past tense suffix -en, the stagnative suffix -ek, the imperative suffix -et or the ordinal number suffix -am: akranet (a-KRAN-et), oyezen (o-YEZ-en). Words are accented on the final syllable if they end in -ai, -au, -ei, -oi, a consonant + s, a vowel diphthong + s, -ss, or any other consonant, as well as -tz in words of three or more syllables: khanau (kha-NAU), phophors (pho-PHORS), oinois (oi-NOIS), pariss (pa-RISS), khatal (kha-TAL), tzareimin (tza-rei-MIN), egeletz (eg-e-LETZ). An exception is words ending in the diphthongs -ai, -au, -ei or -oi that use the same diphthong in the last two syllables, in which case the accent is on the penultimate syllable: kedoidoi (ke-DOI-doi), zevoerhaiyai (ze-voer-HAI-yai). Words ending in -ia or -io take the accent on the syllable before the -ia or -io: valia (VAL-i-a), mesathio (me-SA-thi-o). Three-syllable words that end in -os are also accented on the third syllable from the last if they are not words with -os as a suffix for an abstract noun or future tense: solumos (SO-lu-mos). (Check the dictionary; if no form of the word without its -os ending exists, the word will be accented on the third-to-last syllable.) An exception is words like "shilkolos". "Shilkolos" is a verb meaning "to embody", made of of the prefix shil- (as) and the root word "kolos" (embodiment). Since the accent is on the KO syllable in "kolos", "kolos" keeps its accent when it adds a prefix and becomes "shilkolos" (shil-KO-los). Excerptals are accented on the same syllable as their corresponding plurals: shakti (SHAK-ti), shaktas (SHAK-tas), shaktat (SHAK-tat). Words with the prefix zhi- always take the accent on the root word: zhiis (zhi-IS).

Sandhi appears with the nasals, M, N and NG. before B, P or PH, N and NG sound like /m/. So "bein" in "Bein baitziten fega" (The boy climbed the tree) would be pronounced /beim/.

The Kankonian alphabet has 33 letters: kinek, atak, mopha, shekh, it, testa, dand, nid, rether, ol, ehis, pop, yeta, zhedi, sima, zeki, hu, guda, udu, bisp, khezke, phiket, foyem, vethen, wul, tzapak, loil, *eti, thigum, agong, ghehib, oubo and sukinap. It has traditionally been written vertically (top-to-bottom), but today it can be written horizontally (left-to-right) as well. See this page for the letters. The hyphen character, or bulek, is used for compound words and writing out large numbers, but not for words like "khas-hak".

Sentence Types


Kankonian sentences fall into five types:

1. The declarative: Rami was cycling down to the alimentary center.
2. The interrogative: What was Auresia doing in the garden?
3. The imperative: Wuiwui, get me my tape dispenser.
4. The infecitive, in which a question is answered without repeating the verb: (Where's Kholana?) In the bathroom.
5. The sentencial, which consists of a single word (a sentencial, or interjection, conveying an entire sentence' worth of thought): Booo!

The declarative has a typical verb; the interrogative adds "mahan" at the beginning where English speakers would use a helping verb and in cases of the "five W's" or "how" uses an interrogative word, while keeping the verb in its regular place; the imperative uses the ending -et at the end of the verb and has no subject (except in hortatory or "May . . ." constructions); the infecitive and sentencial lack a verb altogether.

"Mahan" is somewhat equivalent to "do", but can come before any yes/no question.

Mahan wan arksasos phodos?
Do? he reach+FUTURE moon
Will he reach the moon?

Questions always maintain the same subject-verb-object order as declarative sentences.

Yes/no questions can be responded to by "so" or "thi". "So" is the equivalent of saying "correct", while "thi" states that what was asked in the question is not correct.

Mahan ar heyess tzeimoa? So.
Do you like coffee? Yes. (Means the person does like coffee.)

Mahan ar heyess tzeimoa? Thi.
Do you like coffee? No. (Means the person does not like coffee.)

Mahan ar os heyess tzeimoa? So.
Do you not like coffee? Correct. (Means the person does not like coffee.)

Mahan ar os heyess tzeimoa? Thi.
Do you not like coffee? That's not correct. (Means the person does like coffee.)

In informal questions, "mahan" may be dropped and just a sentence with interrogative intonation used: "Ar os heyess tzeimoa?" for "You don't like coffee?" The word "mei" (so) is sometimes placed at the beginning:

Mei ar anas anayal strivi*?
so you have+PRESENT date tonight
So you have a date tonight?

Aside from the subject-verb-object structure, verb-modifying adverbs and prepositional phrases can be placed anywhere in the sentence you want (except that a prepositional phrase may not be placed directly after "az"). However, connectives used as prepositions must always precede their objects. The following, therefore, are all correct:

Ad is wan ayinen behal.
to me she give+PAST magazine

Wan ad is ayinen behal.
she to me give+PAST magazine

Wan ayinen ad is behal.
she give+PAST to me magazine

or Wan ayinen behal ad is.
she give+PAST magazine to me

"She gave me the magazine."

Subjects come before verbs and direct objects after them in Kankonian's SVO structure. Kankonian is a nominative-accusative language. This means that in a sentence with active voice, the entity doing the verb will be the subject (or nominative), and the entity to which the verb is done will be the direct object (or accusative):

Emihelemas betzithas efesh.
grandmother love+PASSIVE+PRESENT baby
The grandmother loves the baby.

When a verb takes only one argument (such as "Don sleeps" or "Sandy died"), that nominal will be the subject of the verb, and come before it ("Don phizuras" or "Sandy enkuten"). With sentences in the passive voice, the entity to which the verb is done will be the subject and come before the verb, while the entity doing the verb, if mentioned in the sentence at all, will be the object of the preposition dyu (by) and come after "dyu":

Efesh betzithizas dyu emihelemas.
baby love+PASSIVE+PRESENT by grandmother
The baby is loved by the grandmother.

Phrases go place-manner-time:

Emisha duwainen Tom er mektzar hom hudupon she 12.
Emisha meet+PAST Tom at bistro via skateboard at 12
Emisha met Tom at the bistro by skateboard at 12.

Parts of Speech


Kankonian has six parts of speech: (1) Nominals -- nouns and pronouns; (2) Verbs; (3) Adjectives; (4) Adverbs; (5) Connectives -- conjunctions and prepositions; (6) Sentencials -- interjections or any other single word that expresses a complete thought. In addition, atekes-smeiwa ("gland particles") are sometimes considered a seventh part of speech. Gland particles are words like "we" (adjective -> adverb) and "ye" (connective -> adverb) that change another word's part of speech.

Nominals


Nominals have three numeri in Kankonian: singulars (vumor, tank); plurals (vumores, tanks); and excerptals (vumoret, one of the tanks).

For nouns of only one syllable or nouns that have the last syllable accented, as well as all regular nouns ending in -tz, the plural is formed by adding -es: ptort -> ptortes, arkhak -> arkhakes, bakhatz -> bakhatzes. Plurals of nouns accented on the penultimate syllable (except those ending in -tz) are formed by removing the last syllable down to its first vowel and adding -as: daka -> dakas, heles -> helas, wiri -> wiras. Nouns with the accent on the third-to-last syllable also change their last syllable to -as: mazario -> mazarias. Nouns ending in -ai, -ei or -oi change the I to Y before adding -es: sawai -> sawayes, thoi -> thoyes. When the singular ends in -ss, one S is dropped in forming the plural: dass -> dases. In compound words with hyphens, the first part of the word takes the plural ending: shaikul-arig -> shaikules-arig. Compound nouns without hyphens put the plural marker at the end: yaramoshi -> yaramoshas, dabnadenkhikol -> dabnadenkhikoles. Initialisms pluralize on only the last letter name: atak ehis -> atak ehas. This applies even if the head word (the word that is pluralized) is the first word in the full form: yehade na anarekset -> yehadas na anarekset but yeta atak -> yeta atakes.

Nounds ending in -eu were traditionally pluralized as -eas: pleu -> pleas, neu -> neas. These days, however, with the -eu becoming diphthongized, -eues is more common: pleu -> pleues, neu -> neues.

Irregulars include:
anthoi -> anthoi
arigski -> arigskies
babi -> babitos
bad-pai-ye -> bad-pai-yeas
blahatz -> blatzas
bwolwo -> bwolwu
garakhe -> garakhien
hilismerye -> hilismeryes
koyesseye -> koyesseyes
meya -> meyez
paraiko -> paraikos
surten -> surtei
taigrisupi -> taigrisupitis
tapi -> tapitis
tshiko -> tshikos
vare -> varis
yea -> oyeas
zan -> zanis
zhered -> zherdu
zwaniz -> zwanzu

It should be noted that the plural of "kererkos" (ringtone) is "kererkoses", not "kererkas". Even though "kererkas" would be the plural following the normal rules of Kankonian accent and suffixes, "kererkos" is derived from the words "kereres" (to ring) and "kos" (clip, soundbite, snippet), therefore the -os at the end is part of the root of one of its constituent morphemes and not a mutable word ending.

Traditional/primitive tribes that do not have nations are usually the same in the singular and plural. For instance, the Basopo, a people who used to live on the continent of Povoi, are referred to as "Basopo", not "Basopas", in the plural, and an individual member of the tribe is also called a "Basopo".

Diskwe -> Diskwe (Disque)
Gekhieng -> Gekhieng (Ge-xieng)
Natshu -> Natshu (Nachu)
Nyang -> Nyang (Nyang)
Pulan -> Pulan (Pulan)
Tetiyen -> Tetiyen (Tetien)

Tribe names that have acquired the suffix -ik in Kankonian, however, have a distinct singular and plural form:

Iorekik -> Iorekikes (Ioreki)
Kupultik -> Kupultikes (Kupulti)
Tenik -> Tenikes (Tenni)

The excerptal form of a noun expresses "one of". For instance, "hayazet" means "one of the stars". To form the excerptal, cut off everything (if anything) after the terminal vowel of the plural form and add "t":

sharas (daughters) -> shara + t = sharat (one of the daughters)
likakes (necks) -> likake + t = likaket (one of the necks)
varis (plants) -> vari + t = varit (one of the plants)
garakhien (garakhien) -> garakhie + t = garakhiet (one of the garakhien)
zherdu (brothers) -> zherdu + t = zherdut (one of the brothers)

The excerptal is used for body parts a person has more than one of when they appear with a possessive:

Fas aas e bwolwut na is.
something be+PRESENT in eye+EXCERPTAL of me
There is something in my eye.

Amerina khafarkhen dumat na wan.
Amerina scratch+PAST thumb+EXCERPTAL of her
Amerina scratched her thumb.

The singular rather than the excerptal is used when which one of your eyes, legs, feet, etc. you are talking about is specified:

Is apsithien pumus utshi na is.
I raise+PAST hand left of me
I raised my left hand.

Nor is the excerptal used when there is no possessive:

Ar wahazas umbe ufoyan zeksisites oba eueras hekhio!
you be_able_to+PRESENT now change channel+PLURAL without move+PRESENT finger
Now you can change channels without moving a finger!

When an adjective describes both/all of the nouns referred to by an excerptal, the adjective comes after the excerptal noun. When the adjective describes only the one of the nouns referred to by the excerptal, it comes before the noun. So, "one of my blue eyes" would be "oimonet wowum" (both of the speaker's eyes being blue), but if the speaker had heterochromia iridum and wanted to say "the blue one of my eyes", he would say "wowum oimonet".

Excerptals (usually "met") also translate the pronoun "one" in sentences like "I want the red one":

Is fuiras gudum met.
I want+PRESENT red one_of_them
I want the red one.

Ar as almonas deyit mui wan as wanzasha deyit.
you are smart one_of_you and she is sweet one_of_you
You're the smart one and she's the sweet one.

Is as almonas wit mui wan as wanzasha wit.
I am smart one_of_us and she is sweet one_of_us
I'm the smart one and she's the sweet one.

If you need to make the singular of a plural noun that doesn't have a singular, turn it into an excerptal: homoses (parents) -> homoset (parent).

Mass nouns are treated as singular in Kankonian:

Is betzithas suzu. Wan as titel.
I love+PRESENT wool. it is warm
I love wool. It is warm.

In English, mass nouns for foods and drinks stay singular even if there are a number of bottles, bowls, cups, etc. of them, but pluralize when "multiple varieties of" is meant ("This store sells exotic meats"). In Kankonian, the reverse is true. Plural nouns can frequently be found if there are multiple, physically separated concentrations of a food or drink, so three bottles of apple juice are often referred to as "weltes" (juices) or plates of salad as "wekores" (salads). "Em weltes na bepis" can even be used to mean "three bottles/cups of apple juice". However, pluralization is not used to refer to types:

Er ham khab vithev pasuez tzemauizas.
at this store meat exotic sell+PASSIVE+PRESENT
This store sells exotic meats.

unless a number word or word like "argas" (many) appears in the sentence to force the food/beverage word to become plural:

Seshit sestrip zash Kole Sezalis Lana hauess houmans o tepisas 240 man wekores.
chef world-renowned APPOSITIVE Kole Palladium Lana know+PRESENT about+how one make+PRESENT 240 different salad+PLURAL
World-renowned chef Kole Palladium Lana knows how to make 240 different salads.

As in many languages, many food words such as "haihas" (cake), "shufski" (pie) or "bemarkez" (candy) can be used as both count nouns and mass nouns in Kankonian. These take the plural forms as plural count nouns (and also the excerptal forms as excerptal count nouns):

Er thebevatia blat shufskas tzemauizen leken.
at bakery twenty pie+PLURAL sell+PASSIVE+PAST yesterday
The bakery sold twenty pies yesterday.

The singular rather than the plural is normally used for describing meat: thakali* (lamb), uphath (chicken), gonizha (squid/calamari), kudan (salmon), puripo (shrimp). Unlike English, the singular is used with bivalves: eksakraka (oyster), zemir (mussel), bolme (clam), khirbas (scallop). One would say, "Is shelimen eksakraka" for "I ordered oysters", not "Is shelimen eksakrakas".

Numbers between 1 and -1 inclusive (including 0) take the singular form. Numbers greater than 1 or less than -1 use the plural form.

Teret hugem er ham huzhus benzinas noto 0.5.
family average at that planet include+PRESENT child 0.5
The average family on that planet has 0.5 kids.

"In o re argas" (one or more) or other constructions with "or" that include the number one are singular:

An id au in o bam baizh wahazas hazi ad sharabporiri famoi er els.
have done_to even one or two arrest be_able_to+PRESENT make to unemployable someone at there
Even having one or two arrests can make someone unemployable there.

"Zhit" (a connective meaning "for") normally takes a singular nominal as its object:

Hames oeas on en sharab zhit wakhavan.
that+PLURAL trick+PLURAL not were bad for parakeet
Those tricks were not bad for parakeets.

The word "halite" (everyone, everybody) is plural in Kankonian and should take a plural pronoun (mem, not wan):

Halite lesas skayu markam na mem.
everybody should+PRESENT pick+up jacket of them
Everybody should pick up their jackets.

The following nominals are also plural: halis (everything), star (the rest), eis (any), eidu (anyone), eilag (anything), khile (both, each), fa (some), myu (a few), tu (few), layas (several), hales (all).

The following nominals are singular: hiel (what), famoi (someone), fas (something), ou (nobody), akh (nothing), mayat (another), khehek (another), pleinte (either), pleos (neither), nos (none).

"Il" (who) can be singular or plural depending on the individual circumstances.

"Argas" is plural when it means many and singular when it means much. "Baphash" (enough) is plural with a count noun and singular with a mass noun.

When "halis" (everything), "star" (the rest), "eis" (any) or any other "any" word, "khile" (each -- but not in the sense of both), "tu" (few), "pleinte" (either) or "pleos" (neither) is the pronoun in a question, its antecedent in the answer will not be "wan" (it) nor "mem" (they), but a repeated "eis", "halis", etc.:

Mahan pleinte welantz iskutekhos?
-So, pleinte hoos.

Will either design work?
-Yes, it will.

Mahan pleinte welantz iskutekhos?
-Thi, pleos hoos.

Will either design work?
-No, neither will.

Sometimes an "any" word will take a "some" word as a response:

Mahan eilag meshudzas ar?
-So, fas hoas.

Is anything bothering you?
-Yes, something is.

"One in" in a statistic is considered plural:

1 zapan 4 welas er Dzhunsu anas zhudalamelka az muyestailarizen dyu homoses ad mem.
1 out_of 4 child+PLURAL at Junsu have+PRESENT credit_card that cosign+PASSIVE+PAST by parents to them
1 in 4 children on Junsu has a credit card cosigned by his or her parents.

A band or a corporation is referred to as "they", not "it":

Blintzshai*ap pagodomen pad zanam dyu mem.
Blintzshai*ap release+PAST album ten+th by them
Blintzshai*ap have released their tenth album.

Sentu gai*eten zankyu deviska shinas ab tzemau na mem id zazhidas kam meitel oiri.
Sentu earn+PAST ten+five quadrillion sina+PLURAL from sale of them done_to cellphone+PLURAL on last year
Sentu made fifteen quadrillion sinas from its sales of cellphones last year.

A noun one of which belongs to each of many is kept in the singular if each has only one of them. For instance, you would say:

Geteres Dantonik alushen hothos na mem ad heshra.
soldier+PLURAL Danton+-ian sacrifice+PAST life of them for heshra
The Dantonese soldiers gave their life for the heshra.

Instead of:

Geteres Dantonik alushen hothas na mem ad heshra.
soldier+PLURAL Danton+-ian sacrifice+PAST life+PLURAL of them for heshra
The Dantonese soldiers gave their lives for the heshra.

Nouns referring to sets of things with -es or -as at the end and no singular form are plural. To refer to one pair/set, one must use the word "bapad" (pair) or "pad" (set).

in bapad na horoboses: one pair of pants
in bapad na winas: one pair of panties
in pad na vwanzanes: one suit
bam bapades na horoboses: two pairs of pants
bapadet na winas: one of the pairs of panties

Nouns that are plural in English but do not have a plural ending are singular in Kankonian, and refer to one pair/set of something:

in izhudia: one pair of headphones
in zhulad: one pair of sunglasses
in medozhod: one set of braces
bam izhudias: two pairs of headphones
zhuladet: one of the pairs of sunglasses

It should be noted that the word "pitzis" (guts, innards) is plural, even though it does not end in -as nor -es, and has no singular:

Chaka katen pitzis hes tairak, mui mem ushen le*sh we.
Chaka cut+PAST guts out_of fish and they come_out+PAST free -ly
Chaka cut the guts out of the fish, and they came right out.

Proper names, such as Gadami, Gemahas, Ching, Connie, Dan and Zafiya, are pronounced and spelt in Roman characters as in their native languages. There are no words for Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms. in Kankonian. To refer to Kankonians by surname, simply use their last name; when speaking of or to other nationalities, address them by the title in their native language.

The words "Zherdu" (Brothers) or "Zwanzu" (Sisters) come before a family name:

Zherdu Isme as pahatra ad pomoshsheizipi tri hasp na Kankonia.
brother+PLURAL Isme are troupe to air-racing most famous of Kankonia
The Brothers Isme are Kankonia's most famous air-racing troupe.

When you are speaking to someone, put "zha" before his or her name:

Zha Phoriphio, nasuet ad lei!
VOCATIVE Phoriphio come+IMPERATIVE to here
Phoriphio, come over here!

Zha famoi, iskalar kuniet is!
VOCATIVE somebody please help+IMPERATIVE me
Somebody please help me!

Possession, or the concept of "of" or "'s", is formed by putting the connective "na" before the possessor: na mopiga (the woman's), bludzhinz na mopiga (the woman's blue jeans), na tzenoreth (of the palm tree), grurgh na tzenoreth (the root of the palm tree), na Tara (Tara's), pumus na Tara (Tara's hand), dephudanas (the anarchists'), shakti na dephudanas (the anarchists' house).

"Na", "ad", "hous", "non", "id" and "dyu" are used to connect to nouns where we would put the head noun after the other noun in English (e.g. sports section). With connectives like these, the head noun comes first.

"Na" is a general indicator that something is of something else:

voshayid na rina: lung cancer
kren na luzkat: lunch bag
femetz na alesha: yoga mat
zoden na pezikas leopard shark (lit. shark of wrinkles)
Blahatz na Yoilanes: Lily Day

Specifically, "na" can indicate location or citizenship in a place:

bauwor na *uthis: town drunk
lausent na hagash: village mayor
zantas na Spanitz: flag of Spanitz

Also use "na" to indicate that something is made of or from something:

shufski na kopbuzes: blueberry pie
homut na somupis: ears, tails and snout of the tapir
zuad na tamatzir: rattan arrow

Or is a part of someone or something's body:

khod na harg: goat ear
*ine na Shaleyik: Shaleyan hair

Use "ad" when the head noun is intended for the purpose of the other noun:

fakram ad etemas: primary (lit. election for nominees)
oyezyes ad maikros: screenplay (lit. play for movie)
koshetz ad sheizipi: racing organization
kargash ad donames: summit meeting (lit. meeting for presidents)

Or for the use of the other noun:

iksakalos ad kala: overhead projector (lit. camera for plastic)

Use "hous" to indicate that the head noun is about the non-head noun:

ili hous yetzuwa: nature show
atzwan hous geletes: leash law
lahaim hous podekes yigo: nuclear weapons report
reking hous agrandes: sports section

Use "non" to indicate the charge for something:

baizh non adekluoi: arson arrest

Use "id" to indicate that something is done to the non-head noun:

tzemau id phoshupes: tire sale
inzitzi id hokules: raspberry picking
dzhiu id hupam: back rub
abamfash id feshmetes: sandwich eater
tzemaufash id falish: marijuana seller
pipetz id pleues: gay-bashing

Use "dyu" to indicate that an action is done by an agent:

khafarkh dyu ze*ya: nail scratch
skili dyu peksis: insect bite

Use "dyu" to denote authorship:

kahupha dyu Paez Vakhamban Asal: Paez Meitnerium Asal book
asoka dyu Blintzshai*ap: Blintzshai*ap CD

The connective "rod" is used after an element name and before a number to indicate isotope:

eskhel rod 40: calcium-40, 40Ca

To form an appositive, use "zash", meaning "which is" or "who is", between the two nominals:

Zhered zash Sean ad is uhwos ad gayam.
brother APPOSITIVE Sean to me go+FUTURE to college
My brother Sean is going to college.

Gokhan zash fufelim geshusten ham vefaf.
Gokhan APPOSITIVE baker bake+PAST this bread
Gokhan the baker baked this bread.

Note that the appositive should come before other prepositional phrases: my brother Sean becomes "zhered zash Sean ad is" and not "zhered ad is zash Sean" (which would denote that the speaker's name is Sean).

"Zash" is also used for appositives with "wir" (we/us): "we students" is "wir zash telemas". Other pronouns take "zash" too when accompanying a noun:

zha ar zash karsti: you idiot
deir zash sokamas: you architects
deyit zash beinet: one of you boys
is zash Phoriphio: I, Phoriphio

"Zash" also joins a pronoun and a number: "wir zash em" means "we three", and "wir zash em teyes" means "we three kings".

In an appositive that echoes back to an antecedent mentioned before in order to correctly place the modifying phrase, the word "zash" is used and then the nominal:

Zilas Dantonik keneksenen heshra ad mem oelfalos we, zash heshra azad ayen az wan kadanizen non khiyel.
citizen+PLURAL Danton+ese follow+PAST heshra to them unquestioning -ly APPOSITIVE heshra for+whom have+PAST that he convict+PASSIVE+PAST for embezzlement
The Dantonese citizens followed their heshra without question, a heshra who had once been convicted of embezzlement.

"Zash" is used after a position as a title: "Donam zash Idve" means "President Idve".

Proper nouns like "Lehola Galaxy" or "Naspar River" consist of the common noun first, than "zash", then the proper noun:

*opei zash Lehola: Lehola Galaxy
Hazas zash Naspar: Naspar River

Here are the personal pronouns in Kankonian:

is: I
ar: you (singular)
wan: he, she, it

wit: one of us
deyit: one of you
met: one of them

wir: we
deir: you (plural)
mem: they

There is also the pronoun "o", meaning one, a generic you, as in "If one wants to feel energetic in the morning, one should get a good night's sleep".

All pronouns are androgynous. Since "he", "she" and "it" all become "wan", the problem of having two "wan's" in the same sentence can be solved by changing one to a specific noun (such as "wiri" or "mopiga") or name, or changing an "it" to "this" or "that" (ham). The translation of "it" tends to lean towards "wan" when it refers to a clearly picturable object and is the subject of a sentence, and towards "ham" when it refers to an abstract noun or action and is the object of a sentence or connective (preposition). "Ham" is also used when what is referred to is a gerund or an entire sentence or fact:

Kheri esthien shil puvur is, am ham os meshudzen is.
Kheri call+PAST as loser me but that not bother+PAST me
Kheri called me a loser, but it didn't bother me.

With statements about temperature, use "mesemiwa" (weather) to translate "it":

Mesemiwa as tziyim.
weather is hot
It is hot.

For sentences such as "It was then that . . .", use "enles" (time) to translate "it":

Enles en rei az kam is gerien shil *igot leshal na is.
time was then which at I notice+PAST as missing purse of me
It was then that I noticed my purse was missing.

When "it" means "the answer", translate it with "demoi" (answer):

Wan steanen houmiel meshudzen is, do is emiyain ad wan az demoi en bikhat na is.
she wonder+PAST about+what bother+PAST me so I tell+PAST to her that answer was knee+EXCERPTAL of me
She wondered what was bothering me, so I told her it was my knee.

Polite order varies. While some hold that placing others first is a sign of respect (wan mui is; ar mui wan), others take a "save the best for last" approach and find another person to be most special when she or he is placed last (is mui wan; wan mui ar).

Kankonian is very much a word-order language (subject-verb-object): "I" and "me", "he" and "him", etc. are not distinguished. "Mem" means both "they" and "them"; both "she" and "her" can be represented by "wan".

Since "wit", "deyit" and "met" are pronouns, they can also translate "you", "he", "she" or "it" when what was previously referred to is an excerptal:

Beinet harshamen ad is. Met envwetzen hakamar wowum mui engumen bomires.
boy+EXCERPTAL wave+PAST at me. one_of_them wear+PAST T-shirt blue and wear_on_the_foot+PAST sandal+PLURAL
One of the boys waved at me. He was wearing a blue T-shirt and sandals.

The excerptal pronouns can also be used with numbers, so "bam met" means "two of them". Excerptal pronouns are not used with words like "many" or "few", however:

Is abamen lem argas mem.
I eat+PAST too many them
I ate too many of them.

To say "my" or "mine", use "na" before the pronoun: na is. "Your" or "yours" would be "na ar". What is possessed comes before the possessive: *ine na is (my hair).

How to say "oneself"? For the reflexive, use "zhi-" before the pronoun: zhiis (myself), zhideir (yourselves), zhiwan (itself), zhio (oneself), etc. The reflexive pronouns comes after the verb:

Wan tethesen zhiwan.
he kill+PAST self+him
He killed himself.

Zhi- can be used for prepositional objects as well as direct objects:

Versa hesias ad zhiwan.
Versa talk+PRESENT to self+her
Versa talks to herself.

An adjective can come after the reflexive to describe it:

Is emen zhiis sevu* er wozak.
I see+PAST self+me pathetic in mirror
I saw my pathetic self in the mirror.

Since pronouns and nouns are not distinguished as two different parts of speech in Kankonian, it is also correct to use zhi- before a noun or name:

Dan nawanden zhi-Dan non ham.
Dan blame+PAST self+Dan for it
Dan blamed himself for it.

When these words are used to emphasize a nominal rather than to form a reflexive, such as "The early emperors did not always follow the rules of kamandra; Ekhula himself ate pork without any utensils", the adverb "erils" is placed after the nominal: Teinarevores kals os pure gepalen pomires na kamandra; Ekhula erils abamen meimas oel eis takiliges.

To indicate something done reciprocally, make *asig (each other, one another) the object of the verb:

Juan mui San rekidas *asig.
Juan and San hate+PRESENT each_other
Juan and San hate each other.

Hales meyez sem teret na is mutzenass *asig.
all person+PLURAL among family of me resemble+PRESENT one_another
All the people in my family look like one another.

If "each other" means that some members of a group are doing it to others but it is not reciprocated, use "edez" instead of "*asig":

Er Yues ziyen hous tethes id edez dyu stormanes er uhul aas.
at United_States problem about kill done_to each_other by kid+PLURAL at school exist+PRESENT
In the U.S., they have a problem with kids killing each other at school. (You would use "edez" here because you do NOT mean that Alice is killing Bob but Bob is also killing Alice.)

Compound nominals are usually head-last: shatrakh (post) + katel (board) = shatrakhkatel (bulletin board). However, body parts come after the head: shaikul (ring) + khod (ear) = shaikul-khod (earring). In these cases a hyphen is used. The connectives "na" and "ad" are also used to make compound words: denis (lint) + na (of) + dup (navel) = denisnadup (navel lint). The irregular plural "bwolwu" (eyes) is often plural as the non-head part of a compound nominal: gehez (gyration) + bwolwu (eyes) = gehez-bwolwu (oculogyric crisis). With regular body-part nominals, however, they must remain singular as non-head parts of the compound: verim (bird) + angi (leg) = verim-angi (stilt), not "verim-angas" -- similar to how we can say "men-bashing" but not "gays-bashing" in English. When only one eye is referred to, however, it is possible for a compound noun to be made from the singular "bwolwo": pupu (worm) + bwolwo (eye) = pupu-bwolwo (eye worm). When you are making a compound nominal from a verb and a nominal, and the nominal component is the head, the verb comes first: adat (to run) + gisu (wheel) = adatgisu (exercise wheel). However, compound nominals can be made from a nominal then a verb if the verb is an implied agent noun: amba (camel) + khat (to stop) = ambakhat (cowcatcher) (since "to stop" really means "stopper" here). When making a compound nominal from an adjective and a nominal, the adjective can come first, in which case it will be a solid word: pies (small) + frelith (strip, runway) = piesfrelith (airstrip). When the nominal and adjective have a space between them, the adjective will always come second: rorzi (bear) + karak (black) = rorzi karak (black bear). Bahuvrihi is common in Kankonian: a starak-tiviud (spoonbill), from starak (beak) + tiviud (paddle), is a kind of bird, not a kind of beak. Rarely, two connectives can make a compound nominal, as in bahai (up) + mer (around) = bahaimer (Ferris wheel). Compound nominals can also consist of a nominal, a verb and a suffix: ne*et (nose) + inzitzi (to pick) + -fash (-er) = ne*etinzitzifash (nose-picker).

Trees may be identified as "fega bepis" (apple tree) or "fega ve*itz" (lemon tree), to distinguish the tree from the fruit. However, such redundant names for plant and animal species as "dodo bird", "tuna fish" and "oak tree" are avoided in Kankonian.

Verbs


Verbs in Kankonian are preceded by subjects and take the following conjugation:

abam - to eat
is abamas - I eat
ar abamas - you eat
wan abamas - s/he eats, it eats
o abamas - (generic) one eats
wit abamas - one of us eats
deyit abamas - one of you eats
met abamas - one of them eats
wir abamas - we eat
deir abamas - you all eat
mem abamas - they eat

The same pronouns can be used with different tenses. The verb in Kankonian takes on these different forms:

Infinitive: Used after a helping verb, without any ending.

Wan wahazas efil venit we.
he be_able_to+PRESENT dance good -ly
He can dance well.

Present: To describe an action that is occurring right now, or a fact that always holds true, or an event or action that the speaker/writer wants to keep timeless, as in a timeline or literary analysis. The present tense is also used for something that happens sometime during a time period (such as a month or year), when a person is unsure whether it has already happened or not.

Mara gasias shures.
Mara look_at+PRESENT flower+PLURAL
Mara is looking at the flowers.

Stenza hazias ad shalob meyez.
stenza make+PRESENT to drunk person+PLURAL
Stenza makes people drunk.

1031: Povoyikes yeringas shil kabing ad hongdin Tzelshik zhimem.
1031 Povoian+PLURAL declare+PRESENT as subjugate to reign Tzelshan self+they
1031: The Povoians declare themselves subjugate to Tzelshan rule.

Kam ham oiri Nara letzas 73.
at this year Nara turn+PRESENT 73
Nara turns 73 this year.

Past: To describe an action or state that happened in the past, but is now completed; translates the past tense (like "ate") and in most cases the past participle (like "have eaten").

Aurea baitziten wudan.
Aurea climb+PAST mountain
Aurea climbed the mountain.

Ham wailis pagodomen maikros tri spel na wan.
that director release+PAST movie most recent of him
That director has released his latest movie.

Future: To describe something that is known or predicted to happen in the future, or something that it is suggested/asked/told that someone do, or something that was suggested/asked/told that someone do that has happened. It is also used for declarations or resolutions.

Wir rezhelos er Shaleya shuyes 4 lamas.
we arrive+FUTURE at Shaleya across 4 lami+PLURAL
We will arrive at Shaleya in 4 lamis.

Av wan nasuos, sereret butekhes hes ye.
when she come+FUTURE bring+IMPERATIVE cookie+PLURAL out PREP-ADV
When she comes, bring out the cookies.

Dzasina wafinas az ar kazos.
Dzasina suggest+PRESENT that you nap+FUTURE
Dzasina suggests that you take a nap.

Eris na yan ksaden is blatzos, do is hoen.
hostess of party tell+PAST me stay+FUTURE so I do+PAST
The party hostess told me to stay, so I did.

Is azfuiras az ar wahazos gedir.
I hope+PRESENT that you be_able_to+FUTURE make_it
I hope you can make it.

Is akranos ar ad els.
I take+FUTURE you to there
I'm taking you there.

Pluperfect: To describe something that was already in the past as of the time in the past you are talking about.

Is spaisenen yea na is av is theshen sokmet ash kutshus.
I finish+PAST+PAST soup of me when I hear+PAST knock on door
I had finished my soup when I heard a knock at the door.

Future perfect: To describe something that is in the future now, but will be in the past as of the time in the future you are talking about.

Wir phorenos 10,000 babaritas olme.
we gain+PAST+FUTURE 10,000 employee+PLURAL universewide
We will have gained 10,000 employees worldwide (across the whole universe).

Enasi: To describe something that has been going on for a while and is still happening or true now.

Spei 150 oiras, wir eroenas hiramik sherev ad babwe*as ad wir.
for 150 year+PLURAL we deliver+PAST+PRESENT service from-the-heart to customer+PLURAL of us
For 150 years, we have delivered from-the-heart service to our customers.

With a negative, it indicates that, for a prolonged time, something has not been going on:

Is os abamenas hathukh ma rimi we.
I not eat+PAST+PRESENT duck so long -ly
I haven't had duck in so long.

Aseni: A special tense used with certain helping verbs to translate them in conjunction with the helping verb "have".

Ar lesasen hemei az verim spirosen ad vainatz.
you should+PRESENT+PAST let that bird fly+FUTURE+PAST to free
You should have let the bird fly free.

Oseni: To describe something that was predicted or planned to happen as of a point in the past, but never materialized, or something that it was suggested/asked/told that someone do that was never done. It is also used to translate "would" in the sense of "would later happen", when recounting the past.

Is draikosen ad ar kakel na yeshpeltz.
I send+FUTURE+PAST to you card of birthday
I was going to send you a birthday card.

Is ksaden yed ad is adhasharosen kumes na wan, am gubilas aas nodoi ash adul.
I tell+PAST son of me clean+FUTURE+PAST room of him but toy+PLURAL exist+PRESENT still on floor
I told my son to clean his room, but there are still toys on the floor.

Wan wovingosen meshi na wan varel dui kam ham blahatz.
he call+FUTURE+PAST friend of him back later on that day
He would call his friend back later that day.

Future-in-future: To describe something that will still have yet to be done at the point in the future you are talking about.

Er bam blatzas, wir arksasosos Hyaiskindu.
at two day+PLURAL we reach+FUTURE+FUTURE Hyaiskindu
In two days, we will have yet to reach Hyaiskindu.

Stagnative: To describe what is projected to happen if a person or people do not change something, usually something negative.

Faru Donzar na Sogmordas kanek ar.
someday squad of vigilante+PLURAL beat_up+STAGNATIVE you
Someday the Vigilante Squad will beat you up.

Wir teminen karaph kaluk yehade hakek wan.
we save+PAST dog before car hit+STAGNATIVE it
We saved the dog before the car hit it.

Projected future events that can be prevented are put in the stagnative, especially if you intend them to be prevented:

Akranet wan ad labat kaluk wan enkutek.
take+IMPERATIVE her to hospital before she die+STAGNATIVE
Get her to the hospital before she dies.

Past tense is normally employed in stories:

Kam homon blahatz kam helmetz kampas, zwidan az fuiren utoi leseoti aen.
on some day in past distant prince who want+PAST marry princess exist+PAST
Once upon a time, there was a prince who wanted to marry a princess.

Danny en khar ilt, hel nenetzes bmupas mui hekhias zanbam.
Danny was fellow tall with lip+PLURAL full and finger+PLURAL twelve
Danny was a tall fellow, with full lips and twelve fingers.

When the narrator is one of the characters, though, living characters and current places are referred to in the present tense:

Meshi zash Danny ad is as khar ilt, hel nenetzes bmupas mui hekhias zanbam.
friend APPOSITIVE Danny to me is fellow tall with lip+PLURAL full and finger+PLURAL twelve
My friend Danny is a tall fellow, with full lips and twelve fingers.

When reminiscing over the way things were in the past, people may use past tense to describe all the people around and everything that was the way it was, even if they haven't changed yet. Past tense is sometimes used to describe people who are deceased, but present tense is used for the permanent attributes (ethnicity, gender, etc.) of the departed. If someone has seen the spirit of a person who has passed away or otherwise has evidence or proof that the person is still alive in the afterlife, s/he will always speak of that person in the present tense, except for characteristics that would have changed in the afterlife. Literary and other artistic personages are usually spoken of in the present tense when their style is discussed:

Kmashand osesas demenes na wan hous artzas ad paraitortur tri venit we na betzith er "Nayizes".
Kmashand reveal+PRESENT thought+PLURAL of him about power to defeat most good -ly of love in rose+PLURAL
Kmashand reveals his thoughts about the power of love to conquer all in "The Roses".

Past tense is normally used for mythology that no one really believes in anymore:

Din phugisma en eksakraka naiyes az der brahelsi yagolbes aen.
the phugisma was oyster fabled that inside ten_million pearl+PLURAL exist+PAST
The phugisma was a fabled oyster that had ten million pearls inside.

Present tense is used for songs, even songs written and produced a long time ago:

"Beotsha" dyu Sobosas as daluye ad baizart haugi.
praseodymium by psychologist+PLURAL is song for listen fun
"Praseodymium" by Sobosas was a fun song to listen to.

Past tense is used for food that has all been eaten:

Ham wivinushuri azid wir abamen shil luzkat emam en somsum.
that spaghetti that_(obj.) we eat+PAST as meal three+th was delicious
That was some good spaghetti we had for dinner.

News headlines are not put by default into the present tense as they are in English. Events that have already happened are placed in the past tense:

Ekluoi ekkhoeren lit Motebwas
fire break_out+PAST near Motebuas
Fire breaks out near Motebuas

Events scheduled to happen use the future tense:

Lile na Akavhhutla spalsamos
cinema of ixora close+FUTURE
Ixora Theater to close

Trends, polls and soft news use the present tense:

83 zapanram na Kebsabazikes laitekas donam
83 percent of Kebsabhazian+PLURAL approve_of+PRESENT president
83% of Kebsabhazians approve of president

Moods in Kankonian are categorized into "the three I's": indicative, imperative and irrealis. Indicatives take tense suffixes, if conjugated verbs (i.e. not infinitives), and possibly -iz- if passive. Imperatives take -et:

Imperative: To give a command.

Guiset karaph umbe!
feed+IMPERATIVE dog now
Feed the dog now!

To make a request gentler (Could you feed the dog?), ask "Mahan ar/deir likas helia . . .?", or "Might you mind . . .?"
Mahan ar likas helia guis karaph?

"Iskalar" means "please", but it has a different connotation from the English word and implies that you are begging.

Irrealis covers hypothetical situations, or those dreamt of, that are not the case (in works of fiction, situations that are not even true within that fictional world). These words do not take a mood suffix or even a tense suffix (but may take -iz if passive).

A verb takes on these different forms with the different tenses and the imperative:

Infinitive: abam - to eat
Present: abamas - eats
Past: abamen - ate; has eaten
Future: abamos - will eat
Pluperfect: abamenen - had eaten
Future perfect: abamenos - will have eaten
Enasi: abamenas - has eaten
Oseni: abamosen - was going to eat
Future-in-future: abamosos - will have yet to eat
Stagnative: abamek - will eat (if things don't start getting better...)
Imperative: abamet - Eat --- !

Verbs ending in -ai, -ei and -oi change the I to Y when a suffix is added:

Infinitive: grai - to turn
Present: grayas
Past: grayen
Future: grayos
Pluperfect: grayenen
Future perfect: grayenos
Enasi: grayenas
Oseni: grayosen
Future-in-future: grayosos
Stagnative: grayek
Imperative: grayet

Verbs ending in -ss drop one S before a suffix is added:

Infinitive: pariss - to convey
Present: parisas
Past: parisen
Future: parisos
Pluperfect: parisenen
Future perfect: parisenos
Enasi: parisenas
Oseni: parisosen
Future-in-future: parisosos
Stagnative: parisek
Imperative: pariset

Verbs of two or more syllables ending in -a conjugate like this:

Infinitive: ama - to play
Present: amass
Past: amain
Future: amaus
Pluperfect: amainen
Future perfect: amainos
Enasi: amainas
Oseni: amausen
Future-in-future: amausos
Stagnative: amaik
Imperative: amait

Verbs with the accent on the penultimate syllable and an ending of -s (-as, -es, -is, -os, -us, -ous) conjugate like this:

Infinitive: haues - to know
Present: hauess
Past: hauesen
Future: hauesos
Pluperfect: hauesenen
Future perfect: hauesenos
Enasi: hauesenas
Oseni: hauesosen
Future-in-future: hauesosos
Stagnative: hauesek
Imperative: haueset

The most important of all verbs is to be. This is how to conjugate it:

Infinitive: e - to be
Present: as
Past: en
Future: os
Pluperfect: enen
Future perfect: enos
Enasi: enas
Oseni: osen
Future-in-future: osos
Stagnative: ek
Imperative: et

Another irregular verb in Kankonian is to become:

Infinitive: inya - to become
Present: inyas
Past: inen
Future: inyos
Pluperfect: inenen
Future perfect: inenos
Enasi: inenas
Oseni: inyosen
Future-in-future: inyosos
Stagnative: inek
Imperative: inet

And another irregular verb is to go:

Infinitive: uhu - to go
Present: uhwas
Past: uhwen
Future: uhwos
Pluperfect: uhwenen
Future perfect: uhwenos
Enasi: uhwenas
Oseni: uhwosen
Future-in-future: uhwosos
Stagnative: uhwek
Imperative: uhwet

The infinitive passive adds -iz; add another suffix as you do in the active:

Tairak os fuiras abamiz.
fish not want+PRESENT eat+PASSIVE
The fish does not want to be eaten.

Bantz na ar zherthizos ehem ar daitrokos pai lile.
ticket of you shred+PASSIVE+FUTURE after you walk+FUTURE into movie_theater
Your ticket will be shredded after you walk into the movie theater.

Typical verbs form the passive this way:

abamiz - to be eaten
abamizas - is eaten
abamizen - was eaten; has been eaten
abamizos - will be eaten
abamizenen - had been eaten
abamizenos - will have been eaten
abamizenas - has been being eaten
abamizosen - was going to be eaten
abamizosos - will have yet to be eaten
abamizek - will be eaten (assuming nothing changes...)
abamizet - Be eaten!

Other types of verbs form the passive like this:

grai -> grayiz
pariss -> parisiz
ama -> amaiz
haues -> hauesiz
inya -> inyaiz
uhu -> uhwiz

The word "by" with a passive voice is translated by "dyu":

Shai*ap phardizen dyu kafawaroi.
ball catch+PASSIVE+PAST by spectator
The ball was caught by a spectator.

Passive voice corresponds to the English use of "they" when it refers to an unknown, unspecified or general personage:

Kelik ksektenizas, do wir fremetos shalang.
road fix+PASSIVE+PRESENT so we take+FUTURE detour
They're fixing the road, so we'll take a detour.

Epselet hesiizas er Lakhan.
Epselet speak+PASSIVE+PRESENT at Laxan
They speak Epselet in Laxan.

In Kankonian, a helping verb can be made passive also:

Wiri az novosizen baizh rakharten.
man that try+PASSIVE+PAST arrest escape+PAST
The man whom "they" tried to arrest escaped, or literally, The man who was attempted to be arrested escaped.

Verbs like burn, freeze, boil, condense, evaporate, etc. are transitive in their basic form. To become intransitive they need to be placed in the passive voice:

Is virakhen shakti na fuburso.
I burn+PAST house of stranger
I burned the stranger's house.

Therat virakhizen.
cloth burn+PASSIVE+PAST
The cloth burned.

Habits, practices and customs without any specific person as a subject may be expressed either as passives or in active sentences with "o" (one) as the subject:

Hapowik hesiizas er lei.
Hapoish speak+PASSIVE+PAST at here
They/we speak Hapoish here.

O hesias Hapowik er lei.
one speak+PRESENT Hapoish at here
They/we speak Hapoish here.

Passive verbs can also come after "inya" (to become). These involve a conjugated "inya" and a passive verb with no ending:

Ham kom inen meradeziz dyu freskines.
this place become+PAST overrun+PASSIVE by squatter+PLURAL
This place has become overrun by squatters.

For passive participles with other linking verbs, make the linking verb passive (and appropriately conjugated) while leaving the verb in its infinitive form:

Hames shures meshizas zdapad.
that+PLURAL flower+PLURAL look+PASSIVE+PRESENT trample
Those flowers look trampled.

Ham seshui adluiizas vifi*.
this food smell+PASSIVE+PRESENT fry
This food smells fried.

To state that something is to be done, use the conjugated verb "gesh" (to stand) with "ad" to, and then the verb in the passive:

Torturfash geshas ad yeringiz.
win+AGENT stand+PRESENT to announce+PASSIVE
The winner is to be announced.

If the passive verb takes an indirect object, invert the order of the indirect object and passive verb from English:

Thothui* ayinizen ad Zara shil yeshpeltz kyuam na wan.
Zara was given a kitten for her fifth birthday.
kitten give+PASSIVE+PAST to Zara as birthday five+th of her

Engoi benazizas ad ou.
tomorrow promise+PASSIVE+PRESENT to no_one
No one is promised tomorrow.

Clauses headed by ep (as) always take the active instead of the passive:

Basig emelgesen netu ep hotzokh podok ien em.
droodle depict+PAST ship as pirate one-eyed would see
The droodle depicted a ship as seen by a one-eyed pirate.

Is baizarten ad "Iyef hous Korukas Ar" ep Argovotones yayaras.
I listen+PAST to happy about have+PRESENT you as giant+PLURAL sing+PRESENT
I listened to "Happy to Have You" as sung by Argovotones.

To translate such phrases as "it is suggested that", "it was requested that", "it is felt that", "it was believed that", etc., do not translate the "it". Make the passive verb after "it" into the verb of the sentence, and whatever proposition is suggested, requested, felt, believed, etc. into the subject of the sentence, placing "that" at the beginning of the sentence:

Az halkashos na ar stailaros ham leyo egeletzizen.
that party of you sign+FUTURE this contract request+PASSIVE+PAST
It was requested that your party sign this contract.

Verbs in Kankonian are kept in real tense:

Wrong: Wan azirethen ad alhas az penkas abamen bolmas.
she teach+PAST to class that starfish+PLURAL eat+PAST clam+PLURAL

Right: Wan azirethen ad alhas az penkas abamas bolmas.
she teach+PAST to class that starfish+PLURAL eat+PRESENT clam+PLURAL

She taught the class that starfish ate clams.

There is no suffix or special form for gerunds in Kankonian. To say, "Being dumb is unattractive", phrase it with the infinitive as "E amb as develu" (To be dumb is unattractive).

Tamin as venit.
belong is good
It is good to belong.

Is ubass az dartz as kasht pure.
I believe+PRESENT that steal is wrong always
I believe that stealing is always wrong.

A gerund in the passive voice appears at the beginning of its clause, followed by "dyu" and then its patient:

Is peren hous maziniz dyu argas hagrores yughela.
I read+PAST about fight+PASSIVE by many battle+PLURAL ancient
I read about many ancient battles being fought.

A gerund being done by someone or something takes "dyu" afterwards:

Baitzit dyu Sakha id skebol hazien az is themetzen.
climb by Sakha done_to flagpole make+PAST that I laugh+PAST
Sakha's climbing the flagpole made me laugh. / Sakha climbing the flagpole made me laugh.

The "dyu" construction is also used with an "instead of" clause featuring a subject in English. The word "bebe*i" (instead of) begins the clause, then the verb is used, then (if there is a verb) "id" followed by the object of the verb, then "dyu" followed by what would be the subject of the verb in English:

Bebe*i phor id trenkas na pta* dyu Rapa, homoses ad wan draikas ad wan hen.
instead_of receive done_to pay_PLURAL of net by Rapa parents to him send+PRESENT to him money
Instead of Rapa getting social security, his parents send him money.

To say "It is A for B to do C to D", put the verb C at the beginning of the sentence, then use "dyu" followed by the nominal B, then use "id" followed by the nominal D, then use a form of the verb "e" (to be), followed by the adjective A:

Safin dyu welas id wapishas ab homoses ad mem as orol.
keep by child+PLURAL done_to secret+PLURAL from parents to them is natural
It is natural for children to keep secrets from their parents.

Kankonians cannot say "I love/like/hate it when . . ." Instead, express the loved/liked/hated scenario as a noun done by its agent:

Is betzithas dzhiu mead angat na is dyu thothu na is.
I love+PRESENT rub against leg+EXCERPTAL of me by cat of me
I love it when my cat rubs against my leg.

Skania rekidas reghul mead wan dyu ashelti ad wan.
Skania hate+PRESENT cheat against her by husband to her
Skania hates it when her husband cheats on her.

When the -ing verb is used as a verb instead of a gerund, after a comma, Kankonian uses the word "mos" (while) and places the verb in whatever tense the verb in the main clause is:

Luzana daitroken zipi belimes mos humishen dases.
Luzana walk+PAST through hall+PLURAL while fear+PAST ghost+PLURAL
Luzana walked through the halls, fearing ghosts.

If you have some but not all of the people or things mentioned doing something, use "mos", then a pronoun, immediately followed by the verb:

Beines na posk geshen ash bakhu mos met hushisen lehesh mui met duesken nephus na met mui bam met wakhiren tzizawa.
boy+PLURAL of band stand+PAST on porch while one_of_them smoke+PAST cigarette and one_of_them have_off+PAST shirt of one_of_them and two one_of_them drink+PAST lemonade
The boys from the band stood on the porch, one smoking a cigarette, one with his shirt off, two drinking lemonade.

To describe something that is or was in the process of happening at a certain time, place the adverb "safga" somewhere in the clause:

Is zhaiwangen safga agras na is av is gerien kobonir e kumes.
I fold+PAST in_the_process_of sock+PLURAL of me when I notice+PAST cricket in room
I was folding my socks when I noticed a cricket in the room.

Mahan ar as vwetzu?
-Is vwetzas safga.

do? you are dressed
-I get_dressed+PRESENT in_the_process_of

Are you dressed?
-I'm in the process of getting dressed.

Kard regudeos safga amaus okoidesk av is os e labat mos watamos efesh ad is.
Kard probably in_the_process_of play+FUTURE video_game when I will_be in hospital while give_birth_to+FUTURE baby to me
Kard will probably be playing video games when I'm at the hospital having my baby.

The hortatory ("Let's") can be translated with the phrase "Is wafinas az wir", or "I suggest that we", along with the future tense of the verb:

Is wafinas az wir wakhiros purzad.
I suggest+PRESENT that we drink+FUTURE purzad
Let's drink some purzad.

A briefer way to do it is to begin the sentence with "wir" and put the verb into the imperative:

Wir wakhiret purzad!
we drink+FUTURE purzad

Sentences beginning with "May . . ." to declare a wish that something happen are translated by placing the verb in the imperative after the subject:

Vainatzos belhetet ab hazas sarz rivas phalushizen!
freedom spring+IMPERATIVE from river+PLURAL where blood spill+PASSIVE+PAST
May freedom spring from the rivers where blood has been spilt!

This structure is also used in legal documents and proclamations where we would use "shall":

Aushak mead atzwanes os noashet alhakh id hias meghoida hel pharomes nairi mui gwapatz osh.
ban against law+PLURAL not prevent+IMPERATIVE creation done_to entity+PLURAL non+government with activity+PLURAL similar and ends OSH-PARTICLE
The ban on laws shall not prevent the creation of nongovernment entities with similar activities and ends.

Questions beginning in "er" (why?) questioning why someone should do something, or beginning in "eros" (why not?) encouraging someone to do something, take the imperative after the question-word opening:

Er shterenget?
why worry+IMPERATIVE
Why worry?

Eros morgenet ad wan karg na tzumukh?
why_not buy+IMPERATIVE for her box of chocolate
Why not buy her a box of chocolate?

"Yakh" is the Kankonian word for "if". The verb in a clause beginning with "yakh" is conjugated normally when something does have a possibility to be true or to happen:

Yakh ham wiri hesias yis, yau argas gilas hekiki tzenethas e urauzi.
if this man speak+PRESENT truth then many thing+PLURAL strange happen+PRESENT in basement
If this man is telling the truth, then a lot of strange things are going on inside the basement.

Yakh Salina efesos, yau rayalet ayin ad wan haihas prin.
if Salina drop_by+FUTURE then be_sure_to+IMPERATIVE give to her cake new
If Salina drops by, be sure to give her the new cake.

To translate "if" with the irrealis (subjunctive) mood -- counterfactuals -- use the verb without any suffixes (same as the infinitive form):

Yakh meyez an shpad ekht, yau wir ien awawish adod *inam.
if person+PLURAL have mouth zero then we would starve to death
If people had no mouths, we would starve to death.

Yakh is e algas, yau is ien morgen shakti prin.
if I be rich then I would buy house new
Were I rich, I would buy a new house.

When what would hypothetically happen is in the past or future, use "yakhen" or "yakhos" instead of "yakh" and use the verb with no suffix:

Yakhen ar tzemau falish, yau wir ien an hen ad morgen id shalut.
if+PAST you sell marijuana then we would have money for buy done_to sugar
If you had sold the marijuana, we would have money to buy sugar.

Yakhos bayis zakhtad, yau is ien fuir an ar hel is.
if+FUTURE world end then I would want have you with me
If the world were going to end, I would want to have you with me.

"Yazhem yakh" means "what if". For questions in which this is a real possibility, use a tense suffix for the verb:

Yazhem yakh is as lem karsk?
what_about if I am too fat
What if I'm too fat?

For counterfactuals, however, this uses a verb without a tense suffix, and -en or -os may be added to the "yakh" in "yazhem yakh":

Yazhem yakh meimas an korenes?
what_about if pig+PLURAL have wing+PLURAL
What if pigs had wings?

Yazhem yakhen reghithio muzapeshi a kam god yughela?
what_about if+PAST civilization communist exist in era ancient
What if a communist society had existed in ancient times?

"Suppose . . ." statements with counterfactuals begin with "Sorumet yakh . . ." (Suppose if . . .). The "yakh" will become "yakhen" or "yakhos" if the counterfactual is in the past or future:

Sorumet yakh ar e ka*azosis.
suppose+IMPERATIVE if you be politician
Suppose you were a politician.

Sorumet yakhen avim kobaphadim gezenuv soyinophadim er Tenta.
suppose+IMPERATIVE if+PAST never consensualism replace educationism at Tenta
Suppose consensualism had never replaced educationism in Tenta.

Irrealis may also be used with "openg" (as if). "Opengen" and "opengos", like "yakhen" and "yakhos", may be used if the irrealis is in the past or future tense:

Wan emptshoven Danny openg wan e pleu.
he kiss+PAST Danny as_if he be gay
He kissed Danny as if he were gay.

Is semishen opengen fas hakizad der is.
I feel+PAST as_if+PAST something shatter inside me
I felt as if something had shattered inside of me.

The irrealis is also used with negative "because", when the condition in the clause governed by "because" is not true. When the condition is true, the past, present, future or whatever is used:

Ham ili as ma guhait daz pintzas na efil na wan, amon daz wan takikh we laikiras ayaspas na stormanes.
that show is so popular because_of number+PLURAL of dance of it not because it accurate -ly portray+PRESENT life of teen+PLURAL
That show is so popular because of its dance numbers, not because it accurately portrays teen life. [The denotation is that the show does accurately portray teen life, but that's not why it's popular.]

Ham ili as ma guhait daz pintzas na efil na wan, amon daz wan takikh we laikir ayaspas na stormanes.
that show is so popular because_of number+PLURAL of dance of it not because it accurate -ly portray life of teen+PLURAL
That show is so popular because of its dance numbers, not because it accurately portrays teen life. [The denotation is that it does not accurately portray teen life.]

Irrealis is also used in a dependent clause to agree with an irrealis main clause:

Mem ien kardas az is e zabletz.
they would think that I be crazy
They'd think I was crazy. (Not "Mem ien kardas az is as zabletz" nor "is en zabletz".)

To indicate "regardless of what may happen", the word "houmiel" (what) begins the phrase, followed by an optional subject, a conjugated "yeiz" (may), the infinitive verb and its object, and the postposition "anol" (regardless of):

Houmiel dehires yeizas shunask, is rayalos faz adaz is kuless ad kuni id ar.
about+what circumstance may+PRESENT require I be_sure_to+FUTURE do what+that I need+PRESENT for help done_to you
Whatever circumstances may require, I'll be sure to do what I need to to help you.

To say "stopped coming", "continues to try", "keep saying", etc., use the particle "va" in between the inflected verb and the infinitive: "khaten va nasu", "rotuas va novos".

When verbs like "hear", "see" or "imagine" are being used to take an event as their "object", the event is expressed as a complete sentence, without any connectives leading from the introductory verb. Usually the event will be in the same tense as the introductory verb. For example:

Wan emen kamar daitroken shuyes kelik.
she see+PAST elephant walk+PAST across road
She saw an elephant walk across the road.

An exception is when the introductory verb is "tzaiyo" (to remember):

Is tzaiyoas ar themetzen kaikan we.
I remember+PRESENT you laugh+PAST loud -ly
I remember you laughing loudly.

When "hear", "see", "imagine", etc. is infinitive, the verb in the event will be in the same tense as the conjugated verb:

Is fuiras ovai shakti virakhizas.
I want+PRESENT watch house burn+PASSIVE+PRESENT
I want to watch the house burn.

When such a verb is in the imperative, the verb of event will be in the future:

Baizartet ad verim yayaros.
listen+IMPERATIVE to bird sing+FUTURE
Listen to the bird sing.

If the subject of the event is the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence, the reflexive prefix zhi- will be used:

Is odenen zhiis phoren sima ad ham onishartz.
I picture+PAST self+me get+PAST sima for that test
I saw myself getting a sima on that test.

If the verb such as "see" is in the passive, the verb in the event will be in the same tense, but without the -iz suffix. There are two ways to form such a sentence, with "mos" or without "mos":

Ravakh emizen uskhuphusen ash yehade na is.
hobo see+PASSIVE+PAST defecate+PAST on car of me
The hobo was seen defecating on my car.

Ravakh emizen mos uskhuphusen ash yehade na is.
hobo see+PASSIVE+PAST while defecate+PAST on car of me
The hobo was seen defecating on my car.

Noto tri mamiz ad wan ukmayizen adpinyeshen wasakohir na uhul.
child most young to her catch+PASSIVE+PAST do_graffiti+PAST restroom of school
Her youngest child was caught doing graffiti in the school restroom.

Noto tri mamiz ad wan ukmayizen mos adpinyeshen wasakohir na uhul.
child most young to her catch+PASSIVE+PAST while do_graffiti+PAST restroom of school
Her youngest child was caught doing graffiti in the school restroom.

The endings on the passive verb and the witnessed verb remain the same if the passive (main) verb is part of a relative clause:

Ravakh az emizen mos uskhuphusen ash yehade na is anen dumas in.
hobo who see+PASSIVE+PAST while defecate+PAST on car of me have+PAST thumb one
The hobo who was seen defecating on my car had one thumb.

If the verb such as "see" is in the irrealis, the verb in the event will have no suffix:

Yakh is apar pakadzhoma avur bulush hupam na is, yau is ien heyiyet.
if I feel pakajooma crawl down back of me then I would scream
If I felt a pakajooma crawling down my back, I would scream.

If the main verb in such a construction is a helping verb, use the tense of the helping verb to determine the tense of sensed verb:

Is wahazen apar pilakh eueren.
I be_able_to+PAST feel ground move+PAST
I could feel the ground moving. (To move takes the past tense, since "wahazen", could, is in the past.)

If the witnessed event is in the passive, use the passive -iz and then make the passive verb in the same tense as the main verb:

Hales wir ovayen phirio ashitizen.
all we watch+PAST temple destroy+PASSIVE+PAST
We all watched the temple destroyed.

When the main verb in such a construction is an infinitive AND the verb in the witnessed event is passive, place the main verb in the infinitive, use "id", then make the passive verb in the witnessed event into a passive infinitive, followed by "dyu" (by) and the subject of the witnessed event, then proceed with the active verb in the witnessed event:

Ovai id hamiiz dyu babi as fwu*is.
watch done_to make+PASSIVE by sausage is no_fun
Watching sausage be made is no fun.

For infinitive phrases after emotion words, use the connective "hous" (about) to introduce the phrase, and put the verb in its appropriate tense:

Karaph os ma iyef hous prebetos ar.
dog will_be so happy about see+FUTURE you
The dog will be so happy to see you.

Donam en hel zimis hous rehinen zhiis er Guzhud.
president was with surprise about find+PAST self+him in Hell
The president was surprised to find himself in Hell.

The connective "id" is used to mean that an action is "done to" something. It is used after a gerund to connect it to its object:

Adhashar id goshaniya en hethet stoern.
clean done_to toilet was task difficult
Cleaning the toilet was a difficult task.

Ovai id zikheth id ventas dyu meyez hazias ad tzareimin is.
watch done_to shoot done_to animal+PLURAL by people make+PRESENT to angry me
Watching people shoot animals makes me angry.

"Ad" is used to translate "to" or "in order to", and "id" is put between the verb and the object:

Naselle adnatain kelik ad hemei id viovis ad yehade.
Naselle clear+PAST path to allow done_to room for car
Naselle cleared the path to make room for the car.

When "to" is used with a meaning more like "as" than "in order to", "shil" is used instead (with "id"):

Shil mehim id Hapowik, ma di ti.
as use done+to Hapoish ma di ti
To use the Hapoish, ma di ti.

To say in order for someone to do something, use "ad" right before the verb, and end the clause with the connective "dyu" followed by whoever or whatever is doing it:

Er Kebsabaz, famoi trayas shta 27 oiras ad estemyul id wan dyu ar.
in Kebsabhaz someone have_to+PRESENT measure 27 year+PLURAL for have_sex done_to him/her by you
In Kebsabhaz, someone must be 27 for you to have sex with him or her.

Describing waiting for someone to do something takes a similar structure:

Is geshen els mos durnen ad dugak id wasakohir dyu wiri Shaleyik.
I stand+PAST there while wait+PAST for exit done+to restroom by man Shaleyan
I stood there waiting for the Shaleyan man to exit the restroom.

To say that something or someone makes it [adjective] for someone to do something, use "hazi" (to make) with the connective "az" (that), then place the verb in gerund form, followed by the passive "dyu" and the person who's doing the action as the prepositional object of "dyu", then the form of the verb to be, then the adjective (make it easy, make it difficult, make it fun, make it special, etc.):

Zhashaka hazien az phizur dyu is en re khetz.
white_sound_machine make+PAST that sleep by me was more easy
The white sound machine made it easier for me to sleep.

If the verb that it was made [adjective] for someone to do takes a direct object, put "id" and the object of "id" somewhere after that verb:

Ovai id hamiiz dyu hekas na tzumukh mui *iletes na tzumukh hazien az abam id kharagas dyu is en haugi.
watch done_to make+PASSIVE by zebra+PLURAL of chocolate and giraffe+PLURAL of chocolate make+PAST that eat done_to chocolate_animal+PLURAL by me was fun

Ovai id hamiiz dyu hekas na tzumukh mui *iletes na tzumukh hazien az abam dyu is id kharagas en haugi.
watch done_to make+PASSIVE by zebra+PLURAL of chocolate and giraffe+PLURAL of chocolate make+PAST that eat by me done_to chocolate_animal+PLURAL was fun

Watching chocolate zebras and chocolate giraffes being made made it fun for me to eat chocolate animals.

To say that something is too whatever for someone to do something to it, use the ad/id/dyu structure, using "o" after "dyu":

Ham kolab as lem woudan ad adsa*alk id wan dyu o.
that tiger is too noble for tame done_to it by one
That tiger is too noble to tame.

If the person, creature or thing is too whatever for him, her or it to do something, simply use "ad":

Sharla as lem gavonhar ad du*ug.
Sharla is too arrogant for apologize
Sharla is too arrogant to apologize.

If the subject that is too whatever is not the object of the associated verb (whatever it is too much of to do), use the ad/dyu structure without an "id":

Mesemiwa geye*itz en lem howei ad pheliz dyu wir.
weather outdoors was too cold for swim by us
The weather outside was too cold to swim. / The weather outside was too cold for us to swim.

Helping verbs come before the infinitive verb of their clause. They are conjugated, while the infinitive is not: likas wayu (might blow), wahazen hesi (could speak).

The aseni tense, marked with the suffix -asen, is used to translate several helping verbs:

lesasen: should have
halasen: should have (logically)
wahazasen: may have
likasen: might have, may have
trayasen: must have
shamasen: must have (logically)

There are also:

ienen: would have
wahazenen: could have

These take an infinitive action verb: shamasen abam (must have eaten).

The suffix -enos can also be used with helping verbs when they describe an event that will be completed by a point in the future:

Is halenos uspis hes ye hali shuish shuyes in lami.
I should+PAST+FUTURE spit out PREP-ADV all toothpaste across one lami
I should have spat out all the toothpaste one lami from now.

Masaren na deir trayenos devoliz shuyes in oiri ad gai*et id ham airaimi.
dissertation of you have_to+PAST+FUTURE complete+PASSIVE across one year for earn done_to that degree
Your dissertation must have been completed one year from now to earn that degree.

When a helping verb is the infinitive of another helping verb, it does not take an ending:

Wan likas novos khat va nagar.
he might+PRESENT try stop VA-PARTICLE work
He might try to stop working.

To translate "having" in the sense of "after having done something", use "ehem" (after) followed by a verb in the past tense:

Ehem spaisen nutwa, olan sadamen mui wahazen phizur venit we.
after finish+PAST nutwa priest go_to_bed+PAST and be_able_to+PAST sleep good -ly
Having finished the nutwa, the priest went to bed where he was able to sleep well.

But sometimes "having" is without an "after" implied, and this translates as just a "wakh" (as) with a subject pronoun:

Shohazir muye en pensadis, wakh wan tethesen 347,000 meyez.
dictator also was murderer as he kill+PAST 347,000 people
The dictator was also a murderer, having killed 347,000 people.

The phrase "he az as" literally means "qua that is", and describes a consideration that a person is something, similar to starting a sentence with "Being" or "As":

He az as raravik, emenos na is enas amasi ab na ar.
as that is rural life of me has_been different from of you
Being rural, my life has been different from yours

He az as Kankonik, is khamhaumas ad ar.
as that is Kankonian I have_something_to_say+PRESENT for you
As a Kankonian, I have something to say to you.

"As" can also be replaced by another verb:

He az shtaas 19 oiras, is gravas stormanes.
as that measure+PRESENT 19 year+PRESENT I understand+PRESENT teen+PLURAL
Being 19, I understand teen-agers.

"As" (or "shtaas" or whatever) stays in present tense, regardless of the actual tense of the sentence:

He az as teinarevor, Ekhula vwetzen sholatar we.
as that is emperor Ekhula dress+PAST opulent -ly
Being an emperor, Ekhula dressed opulently.

A pronoun can be placed before "he az as" if that clause in the sentence refers to a different subject than is being referred to in the main clause:

Ar he az as dephudanis, is osubass az ar ien grav swetalish na is.
you as that is anarchist I doubt+PRESENT that you would understand patriotism of me
You being an anarchist, I doubt you'd understand my patriotism.

Only the following verbs are considered helping verbs and therefore able to take an unconjugated verb, without a suffix, followed by its own object:

agel: to be supposed to
asp: to seem
atzethim: to succeed
azfuir: to hope
el: to have permission to
fretz: to be unable to wait to
fuir: to want
gikel: to agree to
hal: should (logically)
helia: to mind
hig: to prefer
hilmis: to be willing
i(en): would
kram: to plan to
kules: to need
kus: to fail to
les: should
lik: might
*is: to begin to (with can't)
mai: to be about to (be on the verge of doing)
novos: to try, to attempt
ogaud: to refuse
opish: to long, to yearn, to die to
rayal: to be sure to
sagarzh: to be out to
sagriya: to desire
sam: to be destined to, will
sederm: would hate
shakwan: to dare
sham: to have to, must (logically)
shiang: to consider
spladik: to decide
ster: to manage to
thevan: to forget
trai: to have to
tzaiyo: to remember
udeyat: to choose
uhom: to find oneself
vard: to bother to
wahaz: to be able to
wasemb: to be unwilling to
wayes: to mean to
welkesh: to tend
yark: to strive
yed: would (habitually)
yeiz: to happen to; may
yoi: would love
zazad: to be to

The following are the verbs used in vaic constructions, and all of these verbs take "va":

awegel: to proceed
border: will stop at nothing to
khat: to stop
*aitzart: to start/begin
peversh: to resume
raraz: to keep on
rotu: to continue, to keep
satend: to stop/discontinue/quit
shultz: to pause
spais: to finish

The word "daikiz" (to give up) also takes "va" when it governs "novos" (to try):

Is os daikizen va novos shtu.
I not give_up+PAST VA-PARTICLE try yet
I haven't stopped trying yet.

Other verbs must take a gerund as an object, and use "id" to connect the gerund to any nouns:

Melia betzithas guis id hathukhes.
Melia love+PRESENT feed done_to duck+PLURAL
Melia loves feeding the ducks.

Is dratz we esmiyain hesi id Hapowik.
I slow -ly learn+PAST speak done_to Hapoish
I slowly learned to speak Hapoish.

Wiri abusen abam id peksas ad abvodshum.
man resort_to+PAST eat done_to insect+PLURAL for survive
The man resorted to eating insects to survive.

Hiko keyess haues id dotzaliya.
Hiko pretend+PRESENT know done_to trigonometry
Hiko pretends to know trigonometry.

Ham gangi asaros virakh id kyu zes penkas.
this ceremony involve+FUTURE burn done_to five thousands starfish+PLURAL
This ceremony will involve the burning of 5,000 starfish.

*ebait os zdapad id gharaph.
take_care+IMPERATIVE not trample done_to buckwheat
Be careful not to trample the buckwheat.

A non-helping verb with a "that" phrase as its object (says that she loves tacos) can take either "az" and a whole clause (with a subject and with a direct object, if possible) or a gerund (with the subject understood) and prepositional object with "id":

Maureen oyezas az wan betzithas inzhaiwanges.
Maureen say+PRESENT that she love+PRESENT taco+PLURAL

Maureen oyezas betzith id inzhaiwanges.
Maureen say+PRESENT love done_to taco+PLURAL

Maureen says that she loves tacos.

Maureen osatzas az wan dartzas seshui.
Maureen deny+PRESENT that she steal+PRESENT food
Maureen denies that she steals food.

Maureen osatzas dartz id seshui.
Maureen deny+PRESENT steal done_to food
Maureen denies the stealing of food.

"Ien", which means "would", is always considered to be past tense (people never use its root "i" as a standalone word). Being a helping verb, it always takes an infinitive: "ien manor" means "would lose". "Ien" can also take other helping verbs, and in these cases the helping verbs are used without tense or mood suffixes: "ien lik powor" (would might come_true) means "would have the possibility of coming true", while "ien wahaz adat" (would can run) means "would be able to run" and "ien les satend" (would should stop) means that under such a hypothetical circumstance, one would say the person should stop whatever.

"Ien" is used with counterfactual situations that one wishes:

Is shumiras az is ien e piva re almonas.
I wish+PRESENT that I would be girl more intelligent
I wish I were a smarter girl.

"Ienen" is used with past wished counterfactuals:

Is shumiras az is ienen haues az ou abamosen kainushuri.
I wish+PRESENT that I would+PAST know that no_one eat+FUTURE+PAST lasagna
I wish I had known that no one was going to eat the lasagna.

A helping verb as a gerund takes the suffix-free form, then is followed by the infinitive verb and "id":

Kules ozhoitz id vwetz ad howo kam hali blahatz shedrazen is.
need take_care_of done_to clothes to wash on every day drain+PAST me
Needing to do laundry every day drained me.

The past tense may be used as a gerund, with "id", to translate "having":

Is kureshen sharab hous tethesen id maglimez.
I feel+PAST bad about kill+PAST done+to chimpanzee
I felt bad about having killed the chimpanzee.

This can also be done with the future:

Is waheraren hous phoros id kraiski.
I fret+PAST about get+FUTURE done_to shot
I fretted over the fact that I was going to get a shot.

When the past forms a gerund ("to have loved"), the word "en" is used as the gerund, followed by the infinitive verb:

En abam luzkat bamam hel donam en sudoz deyen.
PAST eat meal two+th with president was privilege special
To have eaten lunch with the president was a special privilege.

Is aspas en thevan houmans o troikoss f*ilatades.
I seem+PRESENT PAST forget about+how one cook+PRESENT pen_shell+PLURAL
I seem to have forgotten how to cook pen shells.

Place "enet" ("en" in the imperative) before a verb with no tense or mood suffix to make a command to have done something in the past:

Enet howo pumas na ar etza is rezhelos.
PAST+IMPERATIVE wash hand+PLURAL of you by I arrive+FUTURE
Make sure you've washed your hands by the time I arrive.

"There is", "there are" and "there will be" be are expressed as the existence of something, with the verb "a" (to exist):

Etesyal aas e shubida.
casserole exist+PRESENT in refrigerator
There is a casserole in the fridge.

Zanbam uwenges aen er rave.
ten+two swan+PLURAL exist+PAST at park
There were twelve swans at the park.

The word "do", used to avoid mentioning the same verb twice, is translated by conjugating the verb "ho":

Megar heyess haitokal argas et houmans is hoas.
Megar like+PRESENT haitokal much as about+how I do+PRESENT
Megar likes haitokal as much as I do.

Wan oyezen az wan adhasharen kogu na klotzab, am is os kardass az wan hoen.
he say+PAST that he clean+PAST cage of parrot but I not believe+PRESENT that he do+PAST
He said he cleaned the parrot's cage, but I don't think he did.

Parin shelimos poisalan yakh is hoos.
Parin order+FUTURE lungfish if I do+FUTURE
Parin will order lungfish if I will.

When you have a helping verb, you do not need "ho":

Wan oyezas az wan os kaksados ham khab, am is kardass az wan likas.
he say+PRESENT that he not blow_up+FUTURE that store but I think+PRESENT that he might
He says he won't blow up that store, but I think he might.

When a verb takes a nominal and another verb, "az" is placed after the first verb, and both verbs are in their real tense:

Vugis hazien az is adaten.
snake make+PAST that I run+PAST
The snake made me run.

I fuiras az ar nasuos.
I want+PRESENT that you come+FUTURE
I want you to come.

Mahan ar hemeyos az zhered ad is e*aus?
Do? you let+FUTURE that brother to me enter+FUTURE
Will you let my brother enter?

Ans wailis id ham ili seress az hames pivas meshas ma dani?
how director done_to that show keep+PRESENT that that+PLURAL girl+PLURAL look+PRESENT so hip
How does the director of that TV show keep the girls looking so hip?

Harg pfushen az is koiloaren zipi pomosh.
goat send+PAST that I make_one's_trajectory+PAST through air
The goat sent me flying through the air.

When whatever you need, want, etc. done is in the passive, use the same construction but put the verb in question in passive voice:

Reri kulesen az zanzo siuizosen.
Reri need+PAST that tooth extract+PASSIVE+FUTURE+PAST
Reri needed a tooth extracted.

When verbs like let/need/want are in the passive, the verb is put in passive at the end of the sentence, and the sentence begins with "az", the subject and the other verb:

Az wan abamen pa*aunges semesh haziizen.
that she eat+PAST snail+PLURAL live make+PASSIVE+PAST
She was forced to eat live snails.

With verbs like ask, tell, demand, dare, etc., the conjugated verb is used without "az", followed by the noun, and then whatever verb someone is asked, told, demanded, dared, etc. to do:

Kemal egeletzen mopiga draikos yawuvizitz ad wan.
Kemal ask+PAST woman send+FUTURE DNA_tagger to him
Kemal asked the woman to send him the DNA tagger.

Is rapereas ar duagos ham kogu na zitar.
I dare+PRESENT you open+FUTURE this cage of thylacine
I dare you to open this thylacine cage.

The verb "kuni", to help, is followed by its indirect object (the person being helped), then "ad", then the verb it takes (what you are helping the person do), in the infinitive form. Any objects of the infinitive verb are connected to the verb with "id":

Qunza kunien is ad ekhet id valia oor Zhavartik.
Qunza help+PAST me to write done_to letter in Javarti
Qunza helped me write a letter in Javarti.

The verb "bagad", to hinder, works the same way:

Kyufa bagaden is ad skayu id bokanges.
toddler hinder+PAST me to pick_up done_to ornament+PLURAL
The toddler hindered my picking up the ornaments.

When a verb takes two objects, one of which is transformed into the other, use "ad" (to) before the nominal into which something is transformed and place it before the direct object:

Mahan ar hazios ad zwidan wan?
Do? you make+FUTURE to prince him
Are you going to make him a prince?

When a verb takes a direct object and an adjective, and the adjective describes the transformation of the nominal, place "ad" before the adjective and then state the direct object:

Yahalukes ad ighitu wowum hazias ad tzareimin is.
light+PLURAL to traffic blue make+PRESENT to angry me
Blue traffic lights make me angry.

(On Kankonia, blue traffic lights indicate stop, burgundy prepare to stop and orange go.)

Is retelos ad kiul shakti na is.
I paint+FUTURE to white house of me
I will paint my house white.

Devo spladiken khelam ad rimi *ine na wan.
Devo decide+PAST grow to long hair of him
Devo decided to grow his hair long.

When a verb takes two objects and rather than one being transformed into the other, one object is considered as being the other, use the non-transformative connective "shil" (as) rather than "ad":

Helemas ad Janeqavansi esthias shil Janeqa wan.
mother to Janeqavansi call+PRESENT as Janeqa him
Janeqavansi's mother calls him Janeqa.

When a verb takes a direct object and a non-transformative adjective, place "shil" before the adjective and then state the direct object:

Is shiangas shil albevik wan.
I consider+PRESENT as stupid him
I consider him stupid.

Is poiletzas shil stoern holobwas.
I find+PRESENT as difficult astronomy
I find astronomy difficult.

"Shil" can also be used with verbs that are not linking verbs but take an adjective:

Eren halites zeratzen shil vainatz.
they_say everyone be_born+PAST as free
They say everyone was born free.

"Shil" can be used with "ai" (to have, in sentences like "Steve has his eyes closed") to introduce an adjective:

Is ayas shil han demoi na is.
I have+PRESENT as ready answer of me
I have my answer ready.

"Ai" can be used with an active verb as well. Simply use a conjugated "ai", then the active verb in its appropriate tense, then the subject:

Wan ayen raighien damarkis we kaushanga.
she have+PAST play+PAST continuous -ly videogram
She had the videogram playing nonstop.

Jim ayen tzoyen ash stiv na wan klotzab.
Jim have+PAST sit+PAST on shoulder of him parrot
Jim had a parrot sitting on his shoulder.

To introduce a passive verb with "ai", first use the form of "ai", then the passive verb with the same tense suffix as "ai", then the subject of the passive verb:

Shanitra ayen tshemposizen ous.
Shanitra have+PAST remove+PASSIVE+PAST cyst
Shanitra had the cyst removed.

Is ayos fashadizos heshra na Danton.
I have+FUTURE assassinate+PASSIVE+FUTURE heshra of Danton
I will have the heshra of Danton assassinated.

Wan en tzaireimin hous ai abamiz ftohom na wan.
she was angry about have eat+PASSIVE tunnel_cake of her
She was angry about having her tunnel cake eaten.

The word "hel" can be used to translate "with" instead of using "ai" if you are translating an adjective. Be sure to put "shil" before the adjective and put the "shil [adjective]" part of the sentence after the noun:

Jim baizarten safga ad ozuvwi hel bwolwu na wan shil kusht.
Jim listen+PAST in_the_process_of to music with eye+PLURAL of him as closed
Jim was listening to music with his eyes closed.

If you have a participial verb instead of an adjective, use the "mos" construction with "ai" and a passive verb:

Wan geshen vriz hezisya mos ayen sfakzekizen yehade na wan.
she stand+PAST in_a_state_of shock as have+PAST wreck+PASSIVE+PAST car of her
She stood in shock with her car wrecked.
She stood in shock, her car wrecked.

To translate an English past participle that connects as a loose modifier to another clause, use "mos" and the passive voice:

Lekis rehinen swiu na teinarevor, mos ekelangizen mui goruzezizen.
archaeologist discover+PAST tomb of emperor as rob+PASSIVE+PAST and vandalize+PASSIVE+PAST
The archaeologist discovered the emperor's tomb, robbed and vandalized.

It is also possible to use "hel" (with) with the infinitive of the verbs:

Lekis rehinen swiu na teinarevor, hel ekelang mui goruzez.
archaeologist discover+PAST tomb of emperor with rob and vandalize
The archaeologist discovered the emperor's tomb, robbed and vandalized.

If the modifying phrase has both at least one past participle and at least one straight adjective, do not use "mos". Connect the adjectives directly to the other cause, using "hel" with the infinitive of the verb that would be passive in English:

Radim gasien dukhar, kwinzi mui hel poilass.
Radim look_at+PAST spacecraft shiny and with wipe
Radim looked at the spacecraft, shiny and wiped.

"Shil" should be used instead of "mos" with a passive verb if you have a construction in which the particular way something is done is the point led up to by the main clause. Use "shil" followed by a passive with the real tense:

Avim is abamen bmebas na is shil etzetizen.
never I eat+PAST kidney_bean+PLURAL of me as heat_up+PASSIVE+PAST
I've never eaten my kidney beans heated up.

Is akranas hwoisas bupra na is shil hambirizas, amon shwoerenizas.
I take+PRESENT whirlwind+PLURAL burgundy of me as shake+PASSIVE+PRESENT not stir+PASSIVE+PRESENT
I take my hwoisi bupras shaken, not stirred.

Use an active verb with "mos" and "ai", and place the verb before the subject to translate a present-participal verb in a subordinate clause:

Khados daitroken ad kutshus mos ayen hambiren pumas na wan.
Khados walk+PAST to door while have+PAST shake+PAST hand+PLURAL of him
Khados walked to the door, his hands shaking.

When "to have" takes an active verb, "ai" is used with "az" and a verb in real tense:

Sobosis ayen az is asen totsha tatate.
psychologist have+PAST that I press+PAST button repeatedly
The psychologist had me press the button repeatedly.

"Ai" can also be used with "seres" (to keep). Use "seres" in its appropriate tense, then "ai", then the action verb with a passive -iz suffix and a tense suffix, then the object nominal:

Is seresen ai zhaiwangizen pumas na is.
I keep+PAST have fold+PASSIVE+PAST hand+PLURAL of me
I kept my hands folded.

When a compound verb is made out of a verb and a nominal that forms the object of said verb, the nominal comes first: nuvaf (down) + abam (to eat) = nuvafabam (to sleep with one's face on the pillow, literally to eat down). Nominals may also work other ways in compound verbs: when va*ab (sea gull) and wakhir (to drink) make va*abwakhir (to bite off more than one can chew), the implication is that someone is drinking like a sea gull drinking soda (which will make its stomach explode). When combining an adjective and verb to make a compound verb, the adjective comes first: feser (welcoming, friendly) + betzith (to love) = feserbetzith (to embrace). Two verbs may also be combined to make a compound verb: zhaki (to crash) + enzes (to land) = zhakienzes (to crash-land). When combining an adiective and a noun for a compound verb, the adjective comes first: prin (new) + dedban (algorithm) = prindedban (to rework). Even two adjectives can form a compound verb: prin (new) + kampas (ear) = prinkampas (to push the envelope). Body parts come before verbs in compound verbs: hekhio (finger) + nenya (to name) = hekhionenya (to turn in).

Adjectives


Adjectives of description come after a nominal: the old woman is "mopiga tzmofuz". Determiners (words like this, every, each, enough, few, many, various) come before one: many eggs becomes "argas kehas". Adjectives like next, only, extra, previous and outer are wobbly, although ordinal numbers (first, second, third, last) always come after the nominal.

Articles (the/a/an) are not used. "Fa" (some) is used in its sense of "more than none but not all" ("Some people like oatmeal"), but not as an article ("I bought some bottles of wine" would just be "I bought bottles of wine.")

The determiner "din" is used for "the", however, when the article indicates an animal/plant/fungus as a species:

Pholot shiangizas shil mutra das sawai Musefi.
water_buffalo consider+PASSIVE+PRESENT as mytra according_to religion Musefi
The water buffalo is considered mytra in the Musefi religion.

Adjectives (with the exception of "ham", below) do not inflect to agree in number with the nominal they modify:

piva ilt: tall girl
pivas ilt: tall girls
pivat ilt: one of the tall girls

To inflect adjectives, use "re" before the comparative and "tri" before the superlative. The negative comparative takes "hi"; the negative superlative, "shun":

venit: good
re venit: better
tri venit: best
hi venit: less good, not as good
shun venit: the least good

The comparative and superlative markers appear after the nominal just like the adjective, so the best grapes is "vropes tri venit".

Combine ordinal numbers with "ab" and either "tri" or "shun" to rank superlatives:

bamamab tri salishas: the second most important
emamab tri salishas: the third most important
blatam ab tri salishas: the twentieth most important
bamamab shun salishas: the second least important

anaivir bamamab tri salishas: the second most important criterion
anaivir emamab tri salishas: the third most important criterion
anaivir blatam ab tri salishas: the twentieth most important criterion
anaivir bamamab shun salishas: the second least important criterion

Numbers 2 to 10 are written solid with -ab: holamab, zanamab. From 11 on, the ordinal number and "ab" are two separate words: zaninam ab, hospkyuam ab.

Extremes can be intensified by adding "ting" (of all) after the adjective, so "the sweetest friend of all" is "meshi tri wanzasha ting".

The word for "than" is "de":

Shukh as re bamosh de kwisi.
fruit is more sweet than cabbage
Fruit is sweeter than cabbage.

When you have the verb "hig" (to prefer, would rather) use "eg" (over) for "than" instead of "de":

Is higas fremet huvong eg shilkatan.
I prefer+PRESENT take airplane over train
I'd rather take an airplane than a train.

To compare with "of", use "sem" (among) for "of":

Afra as tri burk sem em.
Afra is most heavy among three
Afra is the heaviest of the three.

"Among" is used instead of "between" in such comparisons, even when there are only two parties being compared:

Afra as re burk sem bam.
Afra is more heavy among two
Afra is the heavier of the two.

"Sem" can be accompanied by "hales wir"/"hales deir"/"hales mem" (us all/you all/them all):

Is payoas az Van as tri almonas sem hales wir.
I think+PRESENT that Van is most intelligent among all us
I think Van is the smartest of us all.

"Ded" (at all) can be placed before "re" or "hi" to mean any: "any more obvious" is "ded re ukal".

"Oulre" means "all the more", and "oulhi" means "all the less":

E defita dash hazias ad oulre deyen is.
be anosmic simply make+PRESENT to only+more special me
Being anosmic simply makes me all the more special.

To say one thing is as X as another, use "et" between the adjective and the standard:

Ham vugis en rimi et gue* na is.
that snake was long as arm of me
That snake was as long as my arm.

Put "houmans" after "et" if the standard consists of a subject and verb:

Zwess os amass argas et houmans wan lesas.
Zwess not play+PRESENT much as about+how he should+PRESENT
Zwess doesn't play as much as he should.

Is os wovingas wan supung et houmans is wovingas helemas ad is.
I not call+PRESENT her often as about+how I call+PRESENT mother to me
I don't call her as often as I call my mother.

Ham katel os as rimi et houmans is kuless.
this board not is long as about+how I need+PRESENT
This board isn't as long as I need.

The construction "os . . . et" literally translates as "not as . . . as" or "not so . . . as". However, in Kankonian, a sentence like "Zana os as tzmofuz et Nasha" (Zana is not as old as Nasha) could mean that Zana is younger than Nasha, or that Zana is older than Nasha. All we know for sure is that Zana and Nasha are not the same age. In English, "Zana is not as old as Nasha" would always mean that Nasha is older than Zana. This would be expressed in Kankonian as "Zana as hi tzmofuz de Nasha" (Zana is less old than Nasha).

To say that something reaches a maximum or minimum of a number, place "war" between the adjective and the number:

Meyez az nagaras er lei gai*etas argas war 500,000 pokhales alan oiri.
person+PLURAL who work+PRESENT at here earn+PRESENT much as 500,000 pokhal+PLURAL per year
People working here make as much as 500,000 pokhales a year.

Welas az en mamiz war 5 nagaren e ham katetoukshakti.
child+PLURAL who were young as 5 work+PAST in that sweatshop
Children as young as 5 were working in that sweatshop.

When comparing things with the proportionate number of times bigger, longer, older, etc. something is than something else, put the times word or phrase right before "re" and use "de" instead of 'et":

Haihas en baispam re burk de shufski.
cake was twice more heavy than pie
The cake was twice as heavy as the pie.

Biku as kyu peses re tzmofuz de Rapa.
Biku is five time+PLURAL more old than Rapa
Biku is five times as old as Rapa.

With fractions, "re" is not used:

Iyes na is en bamiksi rimi de iyes na ar.
story of me was two+th long than story of you
My story was half as long as your story.

To describe the concept of becoming progressively more whatever, place "dumi" before "re":

Telemas ad is inyas dumi re almonas.
My students are becoming smarter and smarter.

Similarly, "dumi hi" can be used to mean "less and less":

Shuyes oiras, ham yizeli inenas dumi hi afas.
Over the years, that comic strip has become less and less funny.

Such phrases as "better yet", "older yet", "sillier yet", etc. are constructed by placing "re" before the adjective and "dui" afterwards (for adjectival uses) or "shil re" before the adjective and "dui" afterwards (for adverbial uses):

Iyes inyas re zabletz dui.
story become+PRESENT more crazy later
The story gets crazier yet.

Shil re sharab dui, movil abamen meyez!
as more bad later tribe eat+PAST person+PLURAL
Worse yet, the tribe ate people!

For constructions of comparison beginning with "the", such as "the harder I try", use "seng" (the more) or "sawi*" (the less) before each adjective or adverb. Follow each adjective or adverb with the subject and then the verb that apply to it:

Seng tzmofuz o shorevas, seng viriz *ine na o inyas.
the_more old one grow+PRESENT the_more grey hair of one becomes
The older you get, the greyer your hair becomes.

Seng somsum seshui as, sawi* khanzi wan as.
the_more delicious food is the_less healthy it is
The more delicious the food is, the less healthy it is.

Seng rimi we ar nagaras, seng argas ar trenkiizos.
the_more long -ly you work+PRESENT the_more much you pay+PASSIVE+FUTURE
The longer you work, the more you will get paid.

To compare different adjectives, put the word "re" at the beginning of the main clause:

Re mazarias as naspewam de emenos as rimi.
more statue+PLURAL are timeless than life is long
Statues are more timeless than life is long.

In yes/no questions, the word "mahan" goes before "re":

Mahan re valias na zardarios as haghatzai de relizes as sepwam?
do? more letter+PLURAL of gratitude are ornery than present+PLURAL are pleasant
Are thank-you notes more ornery than presents are nice?

Mahan ar kardass az re valias na zardarios as haghatzai de relizes as sepwam?
do? you think+PRESENT that more letter+PLURAL of gratitude are ornery than present+PLURAL are pleasant
Do you think thank-you notes more ornery than presents are nice?

Constructions with "not as X as Y" that use "nearly", "half", etc. to modify the comparison require "au" (even) before the adverb in Kankonian:

Atzwanes na Tenta os as au zaniksi darkav de atzwanes na Kebsabaz.
law+PLURAL of Tenta not are even ten+th strict than law+PLURAL of Kebsabhaz
Tenta's laws aren't one tenth as strict as Kebsabhaz's laws.

Ham seshui os as au remi somsum et houmans is fuiras az wan as.
this food not is even nearly delicious as about+how I want+PRESENT that it is
This food isn't nearly as delicious as I'd like it to be.

"No more" and "no less" are expressed by "re dyu nos" and "hi dyu nos" before the adjective:

Ham shiat at peidan as re dyu nos dom de thothu.
that species to dinosaur is more by none big than cat
That species of dinosaur is no bigger than a cat.

Kata omo as hi dyu nos almonas de ar.
Kata really is less by none intelligent than you
Kata is really no less intelligent than you.

Possessives that would be pronouns rather than determiners in English (mine, yours, hers, etc.) require "met" (one) before them when they come after "de" (than):

Karaph na is as re tzmofuz de met na ar.
dog of me is more old than one_of_them of you
My dog is older than yours.

Gaimi na ar as hi dyu nos albevik de met na is.
idea or you is less by none stupid than one_of_them of me
Your idea is no less stupid than mine.

Etil na is as re rimi de met na Dan.
penis of me is more long than one_of_them of Dan
My penis is longer than Dan's.

Swiu na muwil as hi debini de met na tei.
tomb of slave is less elaborate than one_of_them of king
The slave's tomb is less elaborate than the king's. / The tomb of the slave is less elaborate than that of the king.

To make an SAT-style analogy between/among two or more pairs of terms, use the construction "zanikas hel" to mean "is to", and "oor" to mean "as":

Em zanikas hel oman oor thesh zanikas hel zewan.
see connect+PRESENT with blind as heaf connect+PRESENT with deaf
See is to blind as hear is to deaf.

In short form, this would be written in Kankonian as:

em-oman - thesh-zewan
see:blind :: hear:deaf

When superlatives take a possessive, the superlative is translated as an adjective modifying the nominal "weos" (way). The possessive is formed with "ad":

Wir nagaren weos tri venit ad wir ad ushtonu.
we work+PAST way most good to us to recycle
We did our best to recycle.

When an adjective is used as a prepositional object in a noun-like manner, "weos" is also placed before it:

Is inen re oshoki ad weos venit.
I become+PAST more close to way good
I got closer to good.

Shemebet spyu hames surtei as er naihati sharab na weos sayan.
relationship between that+PLURAL sibling+PLURAL is at side bad of way normal
The relationship between those siblings is on the bad side of normal.

Adjectives may come in any order:

Piva Hitik anen *ine karak mui pletes.
girl Hitan have+PAST hair black and straight

Piva Hitik anen *ine pletes mui karak.
girl Hitan have+PAST hair straight and black

The Hitan girl had straight black hair.

Wiri emptshoven nenetzes Bodusik mui hilis mui dom mui shapsal na mopiga.
man kiss+PAST lip+PLURAL Bodusian and yellow and big and luscious of woman

Wiri emptshoven nenetzes hilis mui dom Bodusik mui mui shapsal na mopiga.
man kiss+PAST lip+PLURAL yellow and big and Bodusian and yellow and luscious of woman

He kissed her luscious, big, yellow Bodusian lips.

Some adjectives in English do not exist as adjectives in Kankonian, but instead exist only as verbs: dyamad = to be asleep, yin = to be necessary, etc. Therefore, "Verim esinas" means "The bird is pretty" (is pretty being the verb). To say "the pretty bird", restate as "the bird that is pretty" (verim az esinas). These verbs inflect for tense (esinen, esinos, etc.) like other verbs:

Leseoti az esinen daitroken bulush kelik ad kheban.
princess who be_beautiful+PAST walk+PAST down path to castle
The beautiful princess walked down the path to the castle.

To say "be very beautiful", etc., use "shayam argas" after the stative verb: "esin shayam argas" (be beautiful very much).

Use "re", "tri", "hi" and "shun" followed by "argas we" to compare adjectives like these:

kavineshar az yin re argas we: the more necessary procedure
kavineshar az yin tri argas we: the most necessary procedure
kavineshar az yin hi argas we: the less necessary procedure
kavineshar az yin shun argas we: the least necessary procedure

The word "twifi" is a filler adjective, like "little" or "old". It comes between the nominal and the content-filled adjective:

laderik twifi dazipapi: a catchy little tune
shakti twifi nekaktel: a nice old house

Linking verbs take adjectives rather than adverbs:

Khovan meshas tziyim.
stove look+PRESENT hot
The stove looks hot.

The following verbs are considered linking verbs in Kankonian:

e: to be
inya: to become, to get, to turn
blatz: to stay, to remain
shorev: to grow
asp: to seem, to appear
mesh: to look
rezim: to sound
adlui: to smell
adetam: to taste
azapar: to feel (hot, cold, etc.)
semish: to feel (organically)
kuresh: to feel (emotionally)
khotsh: to vibe (linking verb for psychic sense)
kam: to act
bashwel: to run (tend to be); to get
seshuein: to come off as
asetet: to wax

"Dad" (to vote) is not a linking verb in Kankonian and takes an adverb rather than an adjective:

Ham titiksa dadas khemehekik we pure.
this district vote+PRESENT liberal -ly always
This district always votes liberal.

The word for "this" or "that" is "ham". It agrees in number with the noun it modifies:

ham bein: that boy
hames beines: those boys
hamet beinet: one of those boys

When the meaning of "of these" or "of those" is used, preceding words take the singular or plural:

hales hamet: all of these
hales hol hamet: all four of these

The same word is used in Kankonian for "this" and "that". Personal pronouns may be used instead of "ham" to disambiguate meanings. For instance, to say "this boy" (when referring to yourself), you can say "is zash bein", while "that boy" would be "wan zash bein".

The determiners "hali" (every) and "hales" (all) are easily confusable, but "hali" is singular and "hales" is plural. "Hali" is used as a sort of distributive plural adjective, when you are talking about each one individually:

Hales ziyenes na is sapadzen is.
all problem+PLURAL of me get_to+PAST me
All of my problems got to me.

Hali ziyen bridretzen mui bridrizen is, khile in.
every problem nag_at+PAST and nag_at+PAST me each one
Every problem nagged at me, each in its own way.

The word "hal" means "each", but it also means "all" when you are using a mass noun rather than a count noun:

Sharon palaten hal telemis.
Sharon tap_on_the_shoulder+PAST each student
Sharon tapped each student on the shoulder.

Hal shalut as bamosh.
all sugar is sweet
All sugar is sweet.

"Osales" ("not all" with a count noun) and "osal" ("not all" with a mass noun) work similarly:

Osales bepas as gudum.
not_all apple+PLURAL are red
Not all apples are red.

Osal holak as kran.
not_all grass is green
Not all grass is green.

For participial adjectives that end in "-ing" in English (like running), phrase them with "az" (that) and then a verb (run) with a present, past or future tense suffix: nenetzes az leyias (smiling lips).

For participial adjectives that end in "-ed" in English, use "az" and then a verb in the passive (-iz-) and a past tense suffix (-en): yeskales az pakohaizen (diced onions).

The constructions "easy to [verb]", "hard to [verb]" "important to [verb]", "impossible to [verb]", etc. are expressed by "ad" (for) followed by the gerund (infinitive) of the verb and then the adjective:

Esit na Dan as ad denit khetz.
name of Dan is for spell easy
Dan's name is easy to spell.

Khetekes na Niva as ad em stoern.
freckle+PLURAL of Niva are for see difficult
Niva's freckles are hard to see.

If the verb in this construction takes a preposition (such as "fun to talk about"), place the connective before "ad" (for):

Stivet na ar as ash ad adist nekaktel.
shoulder+EXCERPTAL of you is on for lean nice
Your shoulder is nice to lean on.

To modify an adjective by a length of term, use the adjective, then the word "hom" (by), then the length of time:

Keishi as ihoo* hom hol drertes.
Keishi is pregnant by four month+PLURAL
Keishi is four months pregnant.

Abbeven as slebhumek hom zanfur spases!
library_book is overdue by eighteen week+PLURAL
The library book is eighteen weeks overdue!

The word "osh" indicates that you are applying the same adjective to a nominal that you applied to a previous nominal in the sentence:

Is akranen ash ye markam gudum mui trat osh.
I take+PAST on PREP-ADV coat red and hat OSH-PARTICLE
I put on my red coat and hat. [The denotation here is that the hat is red.]

Yakh o envwetzas nephus kran o vazhares osh, yakh Irlandikes os halas zwintz o kam Blahatz na Den Patrick.
if one wear+PRESENT shirt green or slacks OSH-PARTICLE then Irish-PLURAL not will-PRESENT pinch one on day of Saint Patrick
If you are wearing green a shirt or slacks, the Irish will not pinch you on St. Patrick's Day.

When you are using "ham" (this, that) to modify two different singular nominals, use "osh" to modify the second one. "Osh" should come before the nominal in this case, just as "ham" does:

Is yoyas em ar e lei hel ham talafa mui osh patsha.
I would_love_to+PRESENT see you in here with that skirt and OSH-PARTICLE halter_top
I'd love to see you in here with that skirt and halter top.

On the other hand, if one or both of the nominals take a descriptive adjective in addition to the determiner "ham", "osh" is not used:

Is yoyas em ar e lei hel ham talafa kab mui ham patsha.
I would_love_to+PRESENT see you in here with that skirt short and that halter_top
I'd love to see you in here with that short skirt and halter top.

Is yoyas em ar e lei hel ham talafa kab mui ham patsha reri.
I would_love_to+PRESENT see you in here with that skirt short and that halter_top sexy
I'd love to see you in here with that short skirt and sexy halter top.

To use a verbal phrase to modify a nominal (where we would use a many-hyphenated adjective in English), follow the nominal with "na" and the verbal phrase, putting the verb in its infinitive/gerund form and using "id" to connect it to any of the verb's direct objects:

Ham as gilis na abam id argas et houmans o wahazas sheiz et houmans o wahazas.
this is thing of eat done_to many as about+how one be_able_to+PRESENT fast as about+how one be_able_to+PRESENT
This is an eat-as-many-as-you-can-as-fast-as-you-can thing.

Ham khomar hazien ad yekazsand ayaspas na adat mer ye mui zhaki pai gilas na is.
that further make+PAST to hectic life of run around PREP-ADV and crash into thing+PLURAL of me
It further made hectic my run-around, crash-into-things life.

To use a whole sentence to modify a noun, place "na" after the noun then the embedded sentence, starting with the verb in gerund/infinitive form, then "dyu" and the subject, with "id" if there is a direct object:

Denit na ham tzehimez anas shad na adat dyu thothu parai totshafanfer.
orthography of that language have+PRESENT look of run by cat over keyboard
That language's orthography has a cat-ran-over-the-keyboard look.

Ham en iyes na patsh dyu piva id bein.
that was story of dump by girl done_to boy
It was a girl-dumps-boy story.

A noun may be followed by a verb to make a compound adjective: oyeid (group) + abam (to eat) = oyeidabam (family, as in big enough for a whole family to eat). A compound adjective may also be made up entirely of verbs: euer (to move) + ali (to rest) + euer (to move) = eueralieuer (half-hearted). Rarely, a compound adjective may consist of a noun plus a connective: pumus (hand) + pal (behind) = pumuspal (hands-on). Two adjectives may also form a compound adjective: kran (green) + venit (good) = kranvenit (ripe for the picking).

Adverbs


Adverbs of manner are formed by putting "we" after an adjective: venit we (well), develu we (unattractively).

Verbs such as "esin" cannot take -we. Instead, to express these adverbially, as in "The baskets were beautifully crafted", use the construction "hel weos az . . ." or "in a manner that . . .": "Veksas sweorzizen hel weos az esinen".

Adverbs inflect just like adjectives:

devim we: smoothly
re devim we: more smoothly
tri devim we: the most smoothly
hi devim we: less smoothly, not as smoothly
shun devim we: the least smoothly

A length of time can be used as an adverb when modifying an adjective measured by that time. For instance:

Kahupha as blatkyu oiras we efeni.
book is twenty+five year+PLURAL -ly out-of-date
The book is 25 years out-of-date.

"We" is added after "zapanram" (percent) when a percentage is of an adjective:

Is as 100 zapanram we pamba.
I am 100 per+hundred -ly sure
I am 100 percent sure.

To make adverbs out of participial adjectives (the words ending in -ingly), add the word "im" (so as to) before the infinitive of the verb:

Mopiga feyimen im tzareimin ad wiri.
woman smirk+PAST so_as_to incense to man
She smirked incensingly at him.

Adverbs of degree come before the adjectives they modify: "shayam venit", very good; "baphash tzmofuz", old enough.

The adverbs "lei" (here), "els" (there), "keiru" (anywhere), "keitzam" (somewhere), "keisi" (everywhere) and "keyokh" (nowhere) do not need a connective with the word to be:

Khepoilas as lei.
khepoila+PLURAL are here
The khepoilas are here.

In other contexts they need a connective such as "er" (at), "ad" (towards) or "ab" (from) before them:

Is ailiss er lei.
I live+PRESENT at here
I live here.

Rasasha draiken tupheles ad els.
Rasasha send+PAST package+PLURAL to there
Rasasha sent the packages there.

The adverbs "adhal" and "vikti" mean each. They can be placed before the number and nominal, or after:

Soweibas hwelen adhal sem pokhales.
watermelon+PLURAL cost+PAST each six pokhal+PLURAL

Soweibas hwelen sem pokhales adhal.
watermelon+PLURAL cost+PAST six pokhal+PLURAL each
The watermelons cost six pokhals each.

Use "adhal" when the only number is the number of rate:

Mos adiren Tenta Kafya morgenen skenas na welt pik adhal em shinas.
while visit+PAST Tenta Kafya buy+PAST bottle+PLURAL of juice at_the_rate_of each three sina+PLURAL
While visiting Tenta, Kafya bought bottles of juice at three sinas each.

And use "vikti" when the object whose rate is being calculated is also numbered:

Mos adiren Tenta Kafya morgenen kyu skenas na welt pik vikti em shinas.
while visit+PAST Tenta Kafya buy+PAST five bottle+PLURAL of juice at_the_rate_of each three sina+PLURAL
While visiting Tenta, Kafya bought five bottles of juice at three sinas each.

When expressing agreement, the words muye (so) or osmuye (neither) can be used to begin sentences. These words will be followed by the subject, and then a conjugated helping verb:

Muye is hoas.
so I do+PRESENT
So do I.

Osmuye is hoen.
neither I do+PAST
Neither did I.

Osmuye wan hoos.
neither she do+FUTURE
Neither will she.

Muye Keshi trayas.
so Keshi have_to+PRESENT
So must Keshi.

Question Words


Here are the words that are considered question words in Kankonian:
  • hiel - what, which
  • ku - when
  • iri - where
  • il - who, whom
  • er - why
  • ans - how (in what manner, by what method)
  • anti - how much, how many
  • to - how (to what degree)
  • eur - like what
  • hing - or
  • ku ad ku - how long

    "Ku", "iri", "er" and "ans" come at the beginning of the sentence, with the rest of the words in subject-verb-object position:

    Iri fakhiv na is as?
    where comb of me is
    Where is my comb?

    "Hiel" (which, what) and "anti" come before the nominal they modify, like typical determiners:

    Hiel dayam as ham?
    which flavor is that
    What flavor is that?

    Ar morgenen anti behales?
    you buy+PAST how_many magazine+PLURAL
    How many magazines did you buy?

    "To" is an adverb, coming before the adjective it modifies:

    Kobi as to ilt?
    Kobi is how tall
    How tall is Kobi?

    (When asking questions with "how", use the adjective of greater degree: "how tall?", not "how short?"; "how old?", not "how young?".)

    "Hiel" (what) and "il" work as nominals; they come before the verb when they are in subject position, after the verb when they are in object position:

    Il abamen sishek andam?
    who eat+PAST rice_cake last
    Who ate the last rice cake?

    Ar emen il er losafak isim?
    you see+PAST whom in dormitorium today
    Whom did you see at the dormitorium today?

    Ar fuiras az il truhuvos engoi?
    you want+PRESENT that who come_over+FUTURE tomorrow
    Whom do you want to come over tomorrow?

    "Eur" appears in predicate adjective position:

    Dzhakli as eur?
    Dzhakli is like_what
    What's Dzhakli like?

    "Hing" is used as a connective, in questions asking whether something is one thing or the other. It is placed between the choices, and the words are in normal sentence order:

    Ar akranos luimash hing wawa?
    you take+FUTURE paper or? plastic
    Will you take paper or plastic?

    When two yes/no questions are posed with "hing" in between, the first clause takes "mahan" but the second does not:

    Mahan ar fuiras daitrok, hing wir lesas fremet wogasing?
    do? you want+PRESENT walk or? we should+PRESENT take bus
    Do you want to walk, or should we take the bus?

    When the first part of a "hing" question is a statement, but the second is a question, "mahan" is not used in either part:

    Ar betzithas Kandi, hing ar hoas?
    you love+PRESENT Kandi or? you do+PRESENT
    You love Kandi, or do you?

    Sometimes we will want to use the question words as conjunctions, to mean the fact or question of which, where, who, etc.: "I don't know what he said", "Tell me when you'll be ready", "It depends on how many coins you put in", "I wonder where I should go". In these cases, the question words add houm- (a contracted form of "hous ham", about that) at the beginning:
  • hiel -> houmiel
  • ku -> houmku
  • iri -> houmiri
  • il -> houmil
  • er -> houmer
  • ans -> houmans
  • anti -> houmanti
  • to -> houmto
  • eur -> houmeur
  • hing -> houming
  • ku ad ku -> houmku ad houmku

    Is steanas houmiel Verma abamen shil luzkat inam.
    I wonder+PRESENT about+what Verma eat+PAST as meal one+th
    I wonder what Verma ate for breakfast.

    These words are called question-relatives (houmanes in Kankonian).

    These words mean "the question of", "the issue of" or "the fact of", and are not to be confused with other conjunctional uses of question words such as "av" (when), "az" (who), "sarz" (where), etc. The differences in these words could lead to distinctions in translating a sentence such as "I know when you were at the beach": "Is hauess av ar en er tzaf" means "When you were at the beach, I knew", while "Is hauess houmku ar en er tzaf" means "I know exactly when you were at the beach! You were at the beach at 4:16!"

    The object-relative marker "azid" is not used when "houmiel" (what, which) or "houmanti" (how many, how much) modifies the object of the relative clause:

    Wrong: Is shterengen houmiel behales azid wan peren safga.
    I worry+PAST about+what magazine+PLURAL that_(obj.) he read+PAST in_the_process_of

    Right: Is shterengen houmiel behales wan peren safga.
    I worry+PAST about+what magazine+PLURAL he read+PAST in_the_process_of
    I worried about what magazines he was reading.

    Wrong: Is steanas houmanti vitzakhes azid Sambri abamen.
    I wonder+PRESENT about+how_many vitzakh+PLURAL that_(obj.) Sambri eat+PAST

    Right: Is steanas houmanti vitzakhes Sambri abamen.
    I wonder+PRESENT about+how_many vitzakh+PLURAL Sambri eat+PAST
    I wonder how many vitzakhs Sambri ate.

    The question-relative use of "houmanti" has led to the creation of a new question-relative: houmantu (how little, how few). Since the adjective of higher degree is always used in non-relative questions (i.e. both English speakers and Kankonian speakers ask, "How tall is Jeff?", not "How short is Jeff?"), there is no non-relative question word "antu", but the question-relative "houmantu" can be used in sentences like these:

    Telemas Kankonik naue helblingizen houmantu odones mem anen er uhul.
    student+PLURAL Kankonian constantly remind+PASSIVE+PAST about+how_few right+PLURAL they have+PAST at school
    Kankonian students were constantly reminded how few rights they had while at school.

    If the question-relative is the object of the preposition in the clause it governs, place the preposition at the end of the clause:

    Is os wahazas tzaiyo houmiel wir *auven hous.
    I not be_able_to+PRESENT remember about+what we argue+PAST over
    I can't remember what we were arguing over.

    Mahan ar hauess houmantu kaliyaos Kebsabaz forarizas hel?
    do? you know+PRESENT about+how_little wisdom Kebsabhaz govern+PASSIVE+PRESENT with
    Do you know with how little wisdom Kebsabhaz is governed?

    If both subject and object of a clause are question relatives, use the first nominal with its houm-, the connective "id", then the second nominal with its houm-, then the rest of the clause:

    Wir nophatwelen safga houmil id houmil betzithas.
    we discuss+PAST in_the_process_of about+who done_to about+whom love+PRESENT
    We were talking about who loves whom.

    The question-relatives do not always appear after a verb. They can also be part of the object of a prepositional connective, usually "hous":

    Wir mazinen hous houmanti shuish ad morgen.
    we fight+PAST about about+how_much toothpaste for buy
    We fought over how much toothpaste to buy.

    Weviyaezgrin as *auv hous houmil id houmil lesas du*ug.
    sorry+war is argument about about+who done_to about+whom should+PRESENT apologize
    A weviyaezgrin is an argument over who should apologize to whom.

    "Houming" is the only one of these question-relatives that does not come directly after the verb. "Houming" appears in sentences where "zhephir" (whether) comes after the verb, and "houming" appears later in the place where "or" would appear in English:

    Is os hauess zhephir is shelimos dzhudzho houming hathukh na Boerbais.
    I not know+PRESENT whether I order+FUTURE jujo about+or? duck of Böbais
    I don't know whether to order jujo or Böbais duck.

    Rather than use the infinitive ("to"), as in English, such sentences as "Phadan knows how to eat durians", using "how to", "where to", "when to", etc. are translated with "o" (one), with the verb given its tense ending:

    Avim is hauesen houmans o oshmulshehe*as.
    never I know+PAST about+how one skydive+PRESENT
    I never knew how to skydive.

    Nara azirethen ad is houmer o os wakhiras wana na waginya.
    Nara teach+PAST to me about+why one not drink+PRESENT water of pond
    Nara taught me why not to drink pond water.

    "Know to" is translated, similarly, with the connective "az" (that) and the pronoun "o":

    Zhanik hauess az o asas totsha yakh o fuiras kainushuri.
    Zhanik know+PRESENT that one press+PRESENT button if one want+PRESENT lasagna
    Zhanik knows to press the button if she wants a lasagna.

    With a strictly personal decision, however, a less generic personal pronoun is used instead of "o":

    Zhania os wahazen spladik zhephir wan morgenosen tafenan prin.
    Zhania not be_able_to+PAST decide whether she buy+FUTURE+PAST sweatshirt new
    Zhania couldn't decide whether to buy a new sweatshirt.

    The question word "er" why is used conjunctionally (without "az", and not "houmer") when asking what a person's explanation is for something.

    Ar kardass er gher vuen?
    you think+PRESENT why crime decline+PAST
    Why do you think crime is down? [What do you think caused the decline in crime?]

    Contrast with:

    Er ar kardass az gher vuen?
    why you think+PRESENT that crime decline+PAST
    Why do you think crime is down? [What leads you to believe that crime is down?]

    Sentences may be repeated with a question word in place of a word or phrase that was not heard clearly. With singular nominals, adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases, these words are simply replaced by a question word:

    Danny: Bidzhi e izhudia na is as lekht.
    Seri: Hiel e izhudia na ar as lekht?
    Danny: jack in headphones of me is shot
    Seri: what in headphones of you is shot
    Danny: The jack in my headphones is shot.
    Seri: The what in your headphones is shot?

    Stefani: Tetheset hales omoles gudum.
    Kem: Tetheset hales hiel omoles?
    Stefani: kill+IMPERATIVE all ant+PLURAL red
    Kem: kill+IMPERATIVE all which ant+PLURAL
    Stefani: Kill all the red ants.
    Kem: Kill all the which ants?

    Fima: Deir trayas euer shudorm we mui egrar we ad kreton zyuzos?
    Dropa: Wir trayas euer ans ad kreton zyuzos?
    Fima: you have_to+PRESENT move stealthy -ly and assiduous -ly to barracks enemy
    Dropa: we have_to+PRESENT move how to barracks enemy
    Fima: You must move stealthily and assiduously to the enemy barracks.
    Dropa: We must move how to the enemy barracks?

    Phum Sopho: Awaishor as e khod na ar.
    Phetra: Awaishor as iri?
    Dr. Sopho: crayon is in ear of you
    Phetra: crayon is where
    Dr. Sopho: The crayon is in your ear.
    Phetra: The crayon is where?

    With plural or excerptal nominals, the plural or excerptal form of "hiel" (what) is used:

    Kasa: Is betzithas kesetfashes ad havilu.
    Zara: Ar betzithas hieles?
    Kasa: I love+PRESENT keep_in_place+AGENT+PLURAL to ponytail
    Zara: you love+PRESENT what+PLURAL
    Kasa: I love ponytail holders.
    Zara: You love what?

    Sia: Ar kuless an hamet teluat.
    Manda: O kuless an hamet hielet?
    Sia: you need+PRESENT have this+EXCERPTAL adaptor+EXCERPTAL
    Manda: one need+PRESENT have that+EXCERPTAL what+EXCERPTAL
    Sia: You need one of these adaptors.
    Manda: You need one of those what?

    Multiple question words may be used in combination:

    Paul: Irkomet karg khomluoi pai droph.
    Lon: Irkomet hiel iri?
    Paul: put+IMPERATIVE box fireproof into garage
    Lon: put+IMPERATIVE what where
    Paul: Put the fireproof safe in the garage.
    Lon: Put the what where?

    Tom: Is morgenen zankyu babitos ad yan.
    Zhadiya: Ar morgenen anti hieles ad yan?
    Tom: I buy+PAST ten+five sausage+PLURAL for party
    Zhadiya: you buy+PAST how_many what+PLURAL for party
    Tom: I bought fifteen sausages for the party.
    Zhadiya: You bought how many what for the party?

    With verbs, the word "hiel" is used, and it is conjugated for tense, voice and mood:

    Dzhusinda: Is guisos leldintz ad klotzab.
    Lou: Ar hielos leldintz ad klotzab?
    Dzhusinda: I feed+FUTURE taro to parrot
    Lou: you what+FUTURE taro to parrot
    Dzhusinda: I will feed the taro to the parrot.
    Lou: You will what the taro to the parrot?

    Pam: Shalut dartzizen.
    Tam: Shalut hielizen?
    Pam: sugar steal+PASSIVE+PAST
    Tam: sugar what+PASSIVE+PAST
    Pam: The sugar was stolen.
    Tam: The sugar was what?

    Clay: Shateret ad kashes.
    Donnie: Hielet ad kashes?
    Clay: crabwalk+IMPERATIVE to bar+PLURAL
    Donnie: what+IMPERATIVE to bar+PLURAL
    Clay: Crabwalk to the bars.
    Donnie: What to the bars?

    If one is in shock, however, one may simply use "hiel" without a suffix:

    Amira: Is kardass az is me tzeushen harbas na ar bulush goshaniya.
    Samanda: Ar kardass az ar HIEL?
    Amira: I think+PRESENT that I just flush+PAST key+PLURAL of you down toilet
    Samanda: you think+PPRESENT that you what
    Amira: I think I just flushed your keys down the toilet.
    Samanda: You think you WHAT?

    Sentence Tag


    Questions asking for reassurance at the end of a statement (Manda's in the hall, isn't she?) are called sentence tags. All tags (isn't it?, aren't they?, don't we?, do you?) are translated as isnaloshas. When written in Roman characters, sentences ending with a sentence tag take a period, not a question mark: Manda as e belim, isnaloshas.

    On the other hand, if you are asking "Is or isn't", "Should or shouldn't", etc., repeat the verb with "hing" in between and "os" (not) before the second iteration of the helping verb or copula:

    Cliff as hing os as pleu?
    Cliff is or? not is gay
    Is or isn't Cliff gay?

    Is lesas hing os lesas morgen Monta?
    I should+PRESENT or? not should+PRESENT buy Monta
    Should I or shouldn't I buy a Monta?

    For a verb form that is expressed with a suffix (such as future tense with -os or present tense with -as), rather than a verb, use "ho" (to do) for the negative iteration, and place the negative iteration at the end of the sentence:

    Ar tethesos ham *osoth hing os hoos?
    you kill+FUTURE that moth or? not do+FUTURE
    Are you or aren't you going to kill that moth?

    Ar fuiras uhu ad gubilia hing os hoas?
    you want+PRESENT go to toy_store or? not do+PRESENT
    Do you or don't you want to go to the toy store?

    Connectives


    Conjunctions and prepositions (and such words as "kaluk" (before), "ehem" (after) and "mos" (during/while) that can be used as both) are called connectives in Kankonian. Connectives like "after", "before" and "because" come before rather than after their clauses:

    Is heyiyeten daz zekeno shehe*en ash bad na is.
    I scream+PAST because coconut fall+PAST on head of me
    I screamed because a coconut fell on my head.

    Although connectives of time can be used either prepositionally or conjunctionally in Kankonian, some other connectives can do double duty too. The word hous, or "about", for instance, can be used conjunctionally in sentences like "Is hesien hous is adirosen Denika", literally "I talked about I was going to visit Denika", to mean "I talked about visiting Denika" (with the denotation that the person visiting Denika was the speaker).

    Mui, meaning "and", is repeated without commas in between each item in a lengthy series -- this often gets shortened in speech to sound something like "mwee" (/mwi/) to save time. The same with o, meaning "or", muyo, meaning "and/or", hing, the interrogative "or", and houming, the question-relative "or":

    Povoi lazahass lis ventas oor somupas mui tapitis mui zhonuakes mui avas mui avanassas.
    Povoi feature+PRESENT such animal+PLURAL as tapir+PLURAL and tapi+PLURAL and jaguar+PLURAL and ava+PLURAL and avanassa+PLURAL
    Povoi features such animals as tapirs, tapis, jaguars, avas and avanassas.

    Is os alshpitzos o isuos o dartzos o reghulos.
    I not lie+FUTURE or cheat+FUTURE or steal+FUTURE or philander+FUTURE
    I will not lie, cheat, steal or philander.

    Lettered/numbered lists are also used in Kankonian with "mui", "o", "muyo", "hing" or "houming". The numbers or Kankonian letters are placed in parentheses resembling the parentheses used in Kankonian for writing mathematical equations. While just the letters (K, A, M, Sh, I, T, etc.) are written in Kankonian script, the letters are to be read as "kinek", "atak", "mopha", "shekh", "it", "testa", etc. Unlike with normal lists, the connective "mui", "o", "muyo", "hing" or "houming" is only used before the last item on a list:

    Is os fuiren treth ad amaren daz (1) treth en zufu* (2) bam notat ad is taglisizas dyu dzhevazades (3) thesh id oaupas adnayanas is spei star na blahatz mui (4) asa is uhwenen ad amaren leken.
    I not want+PAST drive to zoo because (1) drive was time-consuming (2) two child+EXCERPTAL to me frighten+PASSIVE+PRESENT by rhinoceros+PLURAL (3) hear done_to howler_monkey+PLURAL give_a_headache_to+PRESENT me for rest of day and (4) already I go+PAST+PAST to zoo yesterday
    I did not want to drive to the zoo because (1) driving was time-consuming, (2) two of my children are frightened by the rhinos, (3) hearing the howler monkeys gives me a headache for the rest of the day and (4) I had already gone to the zoo yesterday.

    Jen trayen spladik zhephir wan shelimosen (K) hathukh az tzwemiizen hel hashi (A) hathukh na Boerbais (M) vitzakhes (Sh) rorunushuri (I) pifonushuri (T) hathukh na Balvintar zash Piek (D) zandaka (N) kash houming (R) voshak kupulshik.
    Jen have_to+PAST decide whether she order+FUTURE+PAST (a) duck that braise+PASSIVE+PAST with tofu (b) duck of Böbais (c) vitzakh+PLURAL (d) ravioli (e) pifonushuri (f) duck of General APPOSITIVE Piek (g) zandaca (h) kash about+or? (i) voshak kupulshik
    Jen had to decide whether to order (a) braised duck with tofu; (b) Böbais duck; (c) vitzakhs; (d) ravioli; (e) pifonushuri; (f) General Piek's duck; (g) zandaca; (h) kash; or (i) voshak kupulshik.

    Care should be taken not to mistake the letter (O) (the Kankonian letter ol, signifying the tenth item on a list) with the connective "o" (meaning "or").

    The word "irkom" (to put) requires a connective of movement (like "pai", into, or "parai", over) rather than a connective of position (like "e", in, or "vyu", above):

    Pozer irkomen shalut pai tzeimoa.
    Pozer put+PAST sugar into coffee
    Pozer put sugar in/into the coffee.

    To translate "that", "which" or "who/whom", use "az" when the nominal before it is the subject of the verb in the relative clause (piva az betzithas is, the girl who loves me) and "azid" when the nominal before it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (piva azid is betzithas, the girl I love). Use "az" rather than "azid" with the verb to be: "the man I used to be" is "wiri az oitshau is en". To become, however, takes "azid": "the woman she became" is "mopiga azid wan inen".

    Kankonikes emen heshra shil omolaski az wan as.
    Kankonian+PLURAL see+PAST heshra as fascist that he is
    The Kankonians saw the heshra for the fascist he was.

    A relative clause that describes a noun phrase should come right after the noun phrase:

    Wrong: Thothu phoeren az betzithas is.
    cat purr+PAST that love+PRESENT me

    Right: Thothu az betzithas is phoeren.
    cat that love+PRESENT me purr+PAST
    The cat that loves me purred.

    "Az" is also used rather than "azid" when it refers to a fact or proposition (such phrases as "say that", "know that", "believe that", "mean that", etc.):

    Is kardass az wan omo mifshen Paul.
    I believe+PRESENT that she really like+PAST Paul
    I think that she really liked Paul.

    Note that in these sentences, "az" is required; it would be incorrect in Kankonian to say "Is kardass wan omo mifshen Paul". The only time "az" would not be used would be in the cases where "yakh", "yakhen" or "yakhos" would be correct, as in "Is kardasen yakh ar heyes verakh" below, or in the cases where you have a relative clause with a question word such as "er" (why).

    When the verb "to find" takes a passive verb, the Kankonian verb "rehin" (to find) takes the connective "az" and a clause with a passive:

    Is higolen ad shakti kam ham blahatz mui rehinen az kobletar na is dartzizenen.
    I return+PAST to home on that day and find+PAST that fabber of me steal+PASSIVE+PAST+PAST
    I returned home that day to find my fabber stolen.

    The word "az" is used to translate Xing when it is used to mean which Xes:

    Anditzfash na Simup ebenizhen pesea az iamien az ka*azosis as pleu.
    observer of Simup print+PAST article that claim+PAST that politician is gay
    The Simup Observer printed an article claiming that the politician was gay.

    When the verb "kardas" (to think) governs a subjunctive/counterfactual clause, use "yakh" instead of "az", and use the irrealis verb without a tense suffix:

    Is kardasen yakh ar heyes verakh.
    I think+PAST if you like steak
    I thought you liked steak.

    "Yakhen" or "yakhos" may be used instead of "yakh" as necessary:

    Is kardasen yakhen ar guis mormol.
    I think+PAST if+PAST you feed hamster
    I thought you had fed the hamster.

    Is kardasen yakhos is an ohos na ar pure.
    I think+PAST if+FUTURE I have soul of you always
    I thought you'd always be mine.

    A direct quote (with quotation marks) does not use "az". If the word "said", "asked", "replied", etc. is placed before the quote, use "oyezen", "mukluken", "demoyen", etc., in the active voice and past tense. "Said" or one of its substitutes may also be placed after the quote. Use the passive and "dyu", then the name of the speaker:

    "Is betzithas maipra", oyezizen dyu Morina.
    I love+PRESENT maipra say+PASSIVE+PAST by Morina
    "I love maipra", said Morina.

    "Zha Philippe!", oyezizen dyu piva mos palaten bein.
    VOCATIVE Philippe say+PASSIVE+PAST by girl while tap_on_the_shoulder+PAST boy
    "Hey, Philippe!", she said, tapping him on the shoulder.

    "Thesh" (to hear) can be put in the passive, with "ab" (from) to indicate an animal sound:

    "Ryau", theshizen ab thothu.
    meow hear+PASSIVE+PAST from cat
    "Meow", went the cat.

    "Kiga-kiga", theshizen ab kazawak pies.
    scuttle-scuttle hear+PASSIVE+PAST from crab little
    Scuttle-scuttle, went the little crab. ("Kiga-kiga" is the Kankonian onomatopoeia for the sound of a crab scuttling on the rocks.)

    "Adaz" means "what" in its connective use ("Ham as adaz zetzas" means "This is what hurts", while "Abamet adaz ar wahazas umbe" means "Eat what you can now"), or "who" and "whom" in the same sense ("Betzithet adaz ar duwainas" means "Love whom you meet" and "Tasha as adaz haken is" means "Tasha is the one who hit me"). It is also used in the Kankonian equivalent of "It's . . . that . . ." constructions:

    Yema na is iskutekhas plan we; phaiyel PAIMO na is as adaz as shluduv.
    computer of me work+PRESENT fine -ly just PAIMO of me is what+that is down
    My computer is working fine; it's just my PAIMO that's down.

    Yakh posolka na Soba e adaz groboshen safga, yau is ien napamba fuir temin wan.
    if wheelchair of Soba be what+that speed+PAST in_the_process_of then I would certainly want save her
    If it were Soba's wheelchair speeding, I would certainly want to save her.

    Karmas na ar as adaz ksadas az ar abamos re argas thevrem.
    body of you is what+that tell+PRESENT that you eat+FUTURE more many carbohydrate
    It's your body telling you to eat more carbohydrates.

    An "adaz" clause may also be the object of a connective. In such a case, place the connective right before "adaz":

    Is os adidemas hel adaz wan oyezas.
    I not agree+PRESENT with what+that he say+PRESENT
    I don't agree with what he says.

    Where English would use an end-of-clause preposition with "the one", Kankonian places a connective after "adaz":

    Ar as adaz ad is wahazas hesi.
    you are what+that to I be_able_to+PRESENT talk
    You're the one I can talk to.

    "Adaz" can be used before an adjective to mean "people who are": "adaz bothras" means "the poor" and "adaz a*oshan" means "the lucky".

    "Of which" and "of whom" in phrases such as "some of which", "one of which", "the first of which", "most of whom", "none of whom" and "all of whom" are translated by "na az":

    Bein Tentik anen khetekes mui medozhod, pleos na az meshudzen wan.
    boy Tentan have+PAST freckle+PLURAL and braces neither of which bother+PAST him
    The Tentan boy had freckles and braces, neither of which bothered him.

    Kam sinen notas em, nos na az gede*en nagar hel wan er katz.
    Kam have+PAST child+PLURAL three none of whom care_for+PAST work with him in office
    Kam had three children, none of whom cared to join him in the office.

    A noun inserted into such a phrase comes after the determiner and before the "na az", not at the end as in English:

    Mem gu ien nalosh az is as leflu mui az is as merz, pleos naloshiz na az as eosa.
    they likely would assume that I am shy and that I am nerd neither assumption of which is true
    They would likely assume that I was shy and that I was a nerd, neither of which assumption would be true.

    Tshaka wafinen az is hir satendos va abam shalut yer hakos kadiak kam hali blahatz, khile sati*as na az taglisen is.
    Tshaka suggest+PAST that I either stop+FUTURE VA-PARTICLE eat sugar or hit+FUTURE gym on every day both proposition+PLURAL of which scare+PAST me
    Tshaka suggested that either I stop eating sugar, or I hit the gym every day, both of which propositions scared me.

    Such constructions cannot be used with family members or body parts.

    Two sets of conjunctions that come in pairs ar "hir - yer" (either - or) and "shan - nan" (neither - nor).

    With "hir - yer" the "yer" is placed where English "or" would be, and "hir" comes at the latest point where separate words apply, be it the nominals or adjectives themselves:

    Is sudeimos hir Fasha yer Tanda.
    I ask_to_accompany_one+FUTURE either Fasha or Tanda
    I shall ask either Fasha or Tanda to accompany me.

    Is azfuiras e hir algas yer hasp.
    I hope+PRESENT be either rich or famous
    I hope to be either rich or famous.

    Hir tzeimoa yer pholos a*utzkios.
    either coffee or pholos suffice+FUTURE
    Either coffee or pholos will do.

    or the verbs:

    Is trayas hir fremet shalang yer dereyush.
    I have_to+PRESENT either take detour or return_home
    I must either take a detour or go back home.

    Is hir me araten sobum na is, yer as shayam mui shayam houmfi.
    I either just lose+PAST file of me or am very and very confused
    Either I just lost my file, or I am so very confused.

    or even the whole clauses/sentence:

    Hir ar alshpitzas, yer Rapa as adaz as zopserd.
    either you lie+PRESENT or Rapa is what+that is spy
    Either you're lying, or it's Rapa who's the spy.

    Is ubass az hir ar alshpitzas, yer Rapa as adaz as zopserd.
    I believe+PRESENT that either you lie+PRESENT or Rapa is what+that is spy
    I believe that either you're lying, or it's Rapa who's the spy.

    "Shan - nan" works the same way:

    Is as shan talwan nan *a*athis.
    I am neither hungry nor thirsty
    I am neither hungry nor thirsty.

    Deir trayas shan alshpitz nan dartz.
    you have_to+PRESENT neither lie nor steal
    You must neither lie nor steal.

    "Nor" without a "neither", in such sentences as "You shouldn't lie, nor should you steal" is translated as "muyos". If there is a helping verb in the clause that follows "nor", it will go after the subject, not before as in English:

    Poilass id seuli na efesh os as shampahethet na Kethas, muyos ar lesas shadaz az wan bedeyos khuphusom na efesh ad ar.
    wipe done_to mucus of baby not is job of Kethas nor you should+PRESENT expect that he change+FUTURE diaper of baby to you
    It isn't Kethas' job to wipe baby mucus, nor should you expect him to change your baby's diaper.

    Kankonian uses a connective of intermediate traversal: ob (equivalent to the first "to" in "from Kankonia to Chatony to Javarti").

    The connective "ad" (to, for) is always used with verbs like "give", even where we would use an indirect object: ayinet ad is (give me).

    Dark tzemauen ad wan khovan ad horshel na mopiga.
    Dark sell+PAST to her stove for apartment of woman
    Dark sold her a stove for her apartment.

    Use "ad" between words to indicate the ethnicity or birthplace of a person who lives in a particular place: a Shaleyan-Kankonian would be "Shaleyik ad Kankonik"; an African-American would be "Afrikik ad Yuesik".

    The word "benus" (translated as "type", "kind", "variety", etc.) as well as words like "flavor", "color", "breed", "brand" and "make" all take the word "ad" to mean "of".

    Wrong: Ar anas hiel benus na yehade?
    you have+PRESENT what kind of car

    Right: Ar anas hiel benus ad yehade?
    you have+PRESENT what kind to car
    What kind of car do you have?

    Family relations also take "ad" instead of "na" (my brother is "zhered ad is", not "zhered na is"). So do words like "enemy", "friend", "neighbor", etc. So does "bayet" (number). The word "geshtum" (favorite) also takes "ad":

    Khour as wakhir geshtum ad wan.
    beer is drink favorite to her
    Beer is her favorite beverage.

    The word "zeltet" (player) takes "id" before the name of a game: zeltet id haitokal (haitokal player).

    "Na" is used to indicate "to" in contexts like "right to", "need to", "desire to", etc. The object takes "id":

    Halite anas odon na udeyat id sawai na mem.
    everyone have+PRESENT right of choose done_to religion of them
    Everyone has the right to choose his/her religion.

    Nouns like "wahazos" (ability), "kalusos" (inability) and "welkesh" (tendency) take "na", and then a gerund (with "id" if the verb has an object).

    Wahazos na spir hetimenas alpore ran taimones deturen.
    ability of fly fascinate+PAST+PRESENT humanity since human+PLURAL evolve+PAST
    The ability to fly has fascinated Man since humans evolved.

    Welkesh na Sam ad dartz id seshui kheriras is.
    tendency of Sam to steal done_to food irk+PRESENT me
    Sam's tendency to steal food irks me.

    Sometimes -ing verbs or gerunds are translated in connection with time words with "mos", and it is used with a verb inflected for tense; while other times they are translated in connection with time words with "na", and it is used with the verb as a gerund, no suffix. "Na" but not "mos" can combine with a noun to form an attribute, while "mos" but not "na" can combine with a gerund to form a noun phrase that doesn't modify any other noun phrase:

    Is frashen blahatz mos nagaren.
    I spend+PAST day while work+PAST
    I spent the day working.

    Dzhusinda frashos lami mos itrihios er sidos.
    Dzhusinda spend+FUTURE lami while travel+FUTURE at outer_space
    Dzhusinda will spend a lami traveling in space.

    Blahatz tri sharab na pta* na is as re venit de blahatz tri venit na nagar na is.
    day most bad of fish of me is more good than day most good of work of me
    My worst day fishing is better than my best day working.

    Blatzas na kilab id tezi sapadzen is.
    day+PLURAL of take(drug) done_to Ecstasy get_to+PAST me
    The days taking Ecstasy got to me.

    The word "mos" is also used with "kard" (busy) before a verb (what someone is busy doing will be in the same tense as the verb to be):

    Shevra en kard mos adhasharen felam.
    Shevra was busy while clean+PAST attic
    Shevra was busy cleaning the attic.

    Such words as "year" and "day" require the preposition "kam" (on) where its meaning is intended:

    Is novosos ksekten guwesh kam mayat blahatz.
    I try+FUTURE fix faucet on another day
    I shall try to fix the faucet another day.

    The adverbs of time are "leken" (yesterday), "isim" (today), "engoi" (tomorrow), "marskar" (last night), "strivi*" (tonight) and "hwudan" (tomorrow night). These do not take "kam". To specify a part of a day, use "kam" with the time of day, "na" and the day:

    Is hamios kainushuri kam armar na engoi.
    I make+FUTURE lasagna on evening of tomorrow
    I will make lasagna tomorrow evening.

    Zizi ovayen maikrimia kam gashi na leken.
    Zizi watch+PAST television on afternoon of yesterday
    Zizi watched television yesterday afternoon.

    "Naphet" (sunset) is used to indicate the number of days ago something happened, and "sasharm" (sunrise) to indicate the number of days in the future something will happen: naphet bam (the day before yesterday), sasharm bam (the day after tomorrow), naphet kyu (five days ago), sasharm hosp-hol (forty-four days from now):

    Amba wakhiren wakhir meitel na wan naphet em.
    camel drink+PAST drink previous of it sunset three
    The camel had its last drink three days ago.

    The word "hel" (with) can introduce subordinate clauses with "shil" (as) and an adjective:

    Zhani arksasen ad tetetza hel pumat na wan shil tuthel.
    Zhani reach+PAST to butterfly with hand+EXCERPTAL of her as open
    Zhani reached for the butterfly, her hand open.

    Sometimes we separate the prepositional object from the rest of the main clause and use it as the subject or object of the main clause. Ex: I have the shoes on which he spat (I have the shoes he spat on). In Kankonian, we use "az" (which or whom), followed by a connective (on) and then the dependent prepositional clause (he spat): Is anas tzatakas az ash wan uspisen. (Lit. I have+PRESENT shoe+PLURAL which on he spit+PAST).

    Words like "day", "time", etc. require an "az kam" where we would use "that":

    Kam hali pes az kam is amias bwolwu na is, is emas omen na ar.
    on every time which on I close+PRESENT eye+PLURAL of me I see+PRESENT face of you
    Every time (that) I close my eyes, I see your face.

    Similarly, "weos" (way) requires "oor" when "in" is meant:

    Wan tethesen iritz na udun oor weos kasht.
    He solved the algebra problem the wrong way.

    "E", when it means to be in a place, requires a connective:

    Josh as e dusmakor.
    Josh is in master_bedroom
    Josh is in the master bedroom.

    When tied to words like "place", therefore, a connective is still needed, even when "place" or such a word is not the prepositional object modifying "to be":

    Poparan as kom zevikh ad e er.
    Poparan is place definitive to be at
    Poparan is the place to be.

    Nos kom az er is higas e eg niwas gue*es na ar aas.
    no place which at I prefer+PRESENT be over between arm+PLURAL of you exist+PRESENT
    There's no place I'd rather be than in your arms.

    The word "oba" means "without" when it governs a clause that contains a verb instead of only nominals. The verb in the clause of "oba" is in the same tense as the verb in the main clause:

    Is daitrokos oba baloubos kraviket na is.
    I walk+FUTURE without stub+FUTURE toe+EXCERPTAL of me
    I shall walk without stubbing my toe.

    When an agent of the verb in the "without" clause is introduced and that agent has not been mentioned in the main clause, use a "dyu" construction and make that agent the object of "dyu":

    Ans kyufa wahazos pheliz oba kulesos drebek bosho dyu is?
    how toddler be_able_to+FUTURE swim without need+FUTURE get_out inner_tube by me
    How shall the toddler swim without me needing to get out the inner tube?

    A connective used with a verb after "ad" (to, in order to) is placed at the end of the clause, after the verb:

    Wan draiken ad Darren bretkwing ad ama hel.
    she send+PAST to Darren slingshot for play with
    She sent Darren a slingshot to play with.

    (Kankonian grammar is ambiguous in that "Wan draiken ad Darren bretkwing ad ama hel" can mean either "She gave Darren a slingshot for Darren to play with", or "She gave Darren a slingshot for herself to play with".)

    "Azad", meaning "for which" or "for whom", is a frequently used connective in Kankonian, filling a variety of roles where a relative would be used but cannot be expressed by a simple "az" or "azid":

    Is rehinen fas azad is os hauess houmiel wan as.
    I find+PAST something for_which I not know+PRESENT about+what it is
    I found something for which I don't know what it is. I found something that I don't know what it is.

    Ham piva, azad is ubass az wan mifshas is, ekse*en luimash ad is.
    that girl for_whom I believe+PRESENT that she like+PRESENT me hand+PAST paper to me
    That girl, who I believe likes me, handed me a paper.

    Is phoren re argas *iusekas de hames azad is hauesen houmiel o fazas hel mem.
    I get+PAST more many invitation+PLURAL than that+PLURAL for_which I know+PAST about+what one do+PRESENT with them
    I got more invitations than I knew what to do with.

    (Note that "azad" cannot take an object-dropping end-of-sentence prepositional clause as in "Wan draiken ad Darren bretkwing ad ama hel".)

    Moyan aas e faz id gilas azad ever meyez emiyass ad o az mem as kasht.
    joy exist+PRESENT in do done_to thing+PLURAL for_which other person+PLURAL tell+PRESENT to one that they are wrong
    There is joy in doing things other people tell you are wrong.

    Bein azad Asha oyezas az wan as pleu mifshas ar.
    boy for_whom Asha say+PRESENT that he is gay like+PRESENT you
    The boy Asha says is gay likes you.

    Wan smolien gaimas azad wan payoen az mem os hekatshen molinzai.
    he criticize+past idea for_which he think+PAST that they not make+PAST sense
    He criticized the ideas he thought didn't make sense.

    Soupha azad ashelti ad Sham emen mopiga emptshoven wiri anen bapiz wowum.
    mistress for_whom wife to Sham see+PAST woman kiss+PAST man have+PAST lipstick blue
    The mistress whom Sham's wife saw kissing him had blue lipstick.

    Soupha azad ashelti ad Sham emen wiri emptshoven mopiga anen bapiz wowum.
    mistress for_whom wife to Sham see+PAST man kiss+PAST woman have+PAST lipstick blue
    The mistress whom Sham's wife saw him kiss had blue lipstick.

    When the noun that heads the relative clause is the subject of the verb in the relative clause (semantically speaking) and the only other arguments you have in the relative clause are the verb, and possibly a direct object (with its adjective(s)), adverbs and prepositional phrases, you use "az" (piva az betzithas is = the girl who loves me). When the noun that heads the relative clause is the object of the verb in the relative clause and the only other arguments in the relative clause are the verb and possibly adverbs and prepositional phrases, you use "azid" (piva azid is betzithas = the girl whom I love). When the noun that heads the relative clause is the prepositional object of a connective and the only other arguments are a verb, a direct object and possibly adverbs and prepositional phrases, you use "az [prep.]" (piva az ad is ayinen betzith na is = the girl to whom I gave my love). Anything else, and you need to keep the extra nominal in and use "azad".

    "Azad" is helpful in translating "whose" when it is used as a conjunction, followed by the possession and then the "na" and "ad" and a pronoun for the possessor if the subject of the clause . . .:

    Mopiga azad shluos na wan adtitelen is kam ham huwos en shayam goyart.
    woman for_whom blanket of her warm+PAST me on that night was very nice
    The woman whose blanket warmed me that night was very nice.

    Or followed by the subject of the clause and then the verb and then the possession, "na"/"ad" and pronoun if the object of the clause:

    Wiri azad wan abamen vitzakh na wan en shayam tzareimin ad wan.
    man for_whom she eat+PAST vitzakh of him was very angry at her
    The man whose vitzakh she ate was very mad at her.

    "Azad" is used when a verb like ask, tell, demand or dare is used in the passive. You phrase it as "for whom that someone do something was asked/told/demanded/dared/etc.", with "az" after "azad":

    Geteres azad az mem higolosen egeletzizen ogauden.
    soldier+PLURAL for_whom that they return+FUTURE+PAST ask+PASSIVE+PAST refuse+PAST
    The soldiers who were asked to return refused.

    When such a structure is used with an infinitive rather than a conjugated verb, there is no "adaz"; start with "az", then "o" (one), then the requested or proscribed action with its appropriate tense suffix, then any objects, then the verb like ask, tell, demand, dare, etc. with the passive suffix -iz and no tense suffix, then the rest of the sentence:

    Az o klombosos khab na famoi egeletziz as zisen splaza id omasid buvitz er Kebsabaz.
    that one leave+FUTURE store of someone ask+PASSIVE is transmission ultimate done_to stigma social at Kebsabhaz
    Being asked to leave someone's store is the ultimate transmission of social stigma in Kebsabhaz.

    "Azad" is used instead of "adaz" with a "the one who . . ." construction:

    Is as azad ar os hauess az ar hauess an is.
    I am for_whom you not know+PRESENT that you need+PRESENT have me
    I am the one you don't know you need.

    The preposition "wudun" (as for) may be placed before a nominal at the beginning of a sentence to start the sentence with any noun as a topic. As with "azad", both the subject and verb are included in the rest of the sentence:

    Wudun Kamila, is skinas wan.
    as_for Kamila I hate+PRESENT her
    As for Kamila, I hate her.

    Wudun zenitz, is kardass az wan adetamas oor barbar.
    as_for cilantro I think+PRESENT that it taste+PRESENT like soap
    As for cilantro, I think it tastes like soap.

    "Wudun" also means "with" in sentences like the following:

    Wudun Muhes na Ozhiyas, o shadukas wantzwaz satzim mui hiramik feser.
    with mutual of Ogiers one get+PRESENT deal great and service friendly
    With Ogiers Mutual, you get a great deal and friendly service.

    To translate an end-of-sentence preposition with a passive voice, add the passive suffix and tense suffix onto the connective:

    Ham amal ukal we polus ashizen.
    this bed clear -ly jump on+PASSIVE+PAST
    This bed has clearly been jumped on.

    This ability to add -iz to connectives also works with "ai":

    Mega on en hanenzi av wan ayen usleletz ashizen adul na wan.
    Mega not was upset when she have+PAST vomit on+PASSIVE+PAST floor of her
    Mega was not upset when she had her floor vomited on.

    In these constructions with passive connectives, it is also possible to slip a direct object between the verb and the connective:

    Zhered ad is supung ama kelkes ihemizen.
    brother to me often play trick+PLURAL towards+PASSIVE+PAST
    My brother was often played tricks on. / People would often play tricks on my brother.

    Or even a prepositional phrase:

    Dazirzis uspis pai omen naizen dyu baizhizis.
    police_officer spit into face of+PASSIVE+PAST by arrest+PASSIVE+AGENT
    The cop was spat in the face of by the arrested.

    With passive participles with linking verbs (as in the sentence "Those flowers look trampled"), make the linking verb passive and do not add an inflectional suffix onto either the action verb or the connective:

    Ham hakamar adluiizas uswawan ash.
    that T-shirt smell+PASSIVE+PRESENT urinate on
    That T-shirt smells peed on.

    To say that X did Y so that Z would happen, use the connective "do" (so):

    Is *aitzarten kalse we do is anosen argas enles.
    I start+PAST early -ly so I have+FUTURE+PAST much time
    I started early so I would have a lot of time.

    To say that X did Y so that Z would not happen, use the connective "khat" (lest) and place the verb in what you avoided happening in the stagnative:

    Zhana amien *emar khat meimas rakhartek.
    Zhana close+PAST gate lest pig+PLURAL escape+STAGNATIVE
    Zhana closed the gate so the pigs wouldn't get out.

    To turn a word from preposition into adverb, add "ye" after it:

    Is daitroken pai ye.
    I walk+PAST into PREP-ADV
    I walked in.

    Zatura emen fega mui baitziten bahai ye.
    monkey see+PAST tree and climb+PAST up PREP-ADV
    The monkey saw a tree and climbed up.

    When a verb takes a "ye" adverb, the prepositional adverb can appear either before or after the object:

    Is akranen ash ye fasukum ribi na is.
    I take+PAST on PREP-ADV polo_shirt striped of me

    Is akranen fasukum ribi na is ash ye.
    I take+PAST polo_shirt striped of me on PREP-ADV
    I put on my striped polo.

    In conditional or counterfactual sentences where the "if" clause, or protasis, comes first, "yakh" (or "yakhen" or "yakhos") comes before the protasis (if ___), and "yau" comes before the apodosis (then ___):

    Yakh is letzos zes mos nodoi semesh, yau is shorevek shayam flam hous emenos.
    if I turn+FUTURE 1,000 while still alive then I grow+STAGNATIVE very bored about life
    If I live to be 1,000, I will grow very bored with life.

    Yakh is e avanassa, yau is ien ovu ozuvwi haliblatzi we.
    if I be avanassa then I would play music all+day+y -ly
    If I were an avanassa, I would play music all day.

    The connective "oor" means like (or as), while its coördinate term "ziress" means unlike. "Ziress" should be used if there is a negative word in the clause:

    Luoi os as *uhwis ziress wana.
    fire not is wet unlike water
    Fire is not wet, unlike water. / Fire is not wet like water.

    However, if not having the trait is one of the characteristics that makes something like something else, "oor" should be used:

    Nibidosis os as khanzi oor zabuwelmis.
    schizophrenic not is healthy like bipolar+ist
    A schizophrenic is not healthy, like a bipolar person.

    The connectives "temkas ad" (sure to), "senia" (likely to) and "gounia" (unlikely to) take a verb as their object, and the verb takes "id" before its object:

    Is as temkas ad tortur id potziya.
    I am sure to win done_to prize
    I am sure to win the prize.

    Ham garmad as senia kalang id kineles.
    that driver is likely transfer done_to lane+PLURAL
    That driver is likely to change lanes.

    Triho e karmans ad pozhuss as gounia noash id voshayid.
    trip in machine to time-travel is unlikely prevent done_to cancer
    A trip in the time machine is unlikely to prevent cancer.

    Similar is "han" (ready), which means "ad" (to) and "id" if an object of the verb whoever is ready to do is required:

    Mahan deir as han ad mazin id Ratharikes?
    do? you are ready to fight done_to Ratharian+PLURAL
    Are you all ready to fight the Ratharians?

    The connective "khaim" means "the fact that". It comes at the beginning of a clause, often corresponding to English "it":

    Adaz meshudzen is en khaim wan fazen ham oelgebosh.
    what+that bother+PAST me was the_fact_that she do+PAST that without+warning
    What bothered me was the fact that she did it without warning.

    Khaim ar esmiyass tzehimez na is as deniyi.
    the_fact_that you learn+PRESENT language of me is impressive
    It's impressive that you're learning my language.

    "Zhephir" (whether) may head a clause that is the object of a preposition:

    Mem *auven hous zhephir ezgrin azid Kebsabaz khebekas as phesheyenadado.
    they argue+PAST about whether war that_(obj.) Kebsabhaz wage+PRESENT is oil_war
    They had an argument over whether the war Kebsabhaz was fighting was an oil war.

    Kankonian has one postposition: the word "anol" (regardless of):

    Heshra samas porsh Danton, zhephir remi hales meyez heyess wan anol.
    heshra be_destined_to+PRESENT rule Danton whether almost all person+PLURAL like+PRESENT him regardless_of
    A heshra will rule Danton, regardless of whether most people like him.

    When "anol" is used with an "or" phrase, use "hing" rather than "o" to translate "or":

    Fomsiya na is, maik hing kasht anol!
    team of me right or? wrong regardless_of
    My team, right or wrong!

    Correlatives


    The "this/that" words are "ham" (this/that or this one/that one or this thing/that thing), "lei" and "els" (here and there), "umbe" and "rei" (now and then), "shtud" (thus/thusly, in this/that way), "do" (thus, for this/that reason) and "khod" (like this/like that).

    The "every" words are "hali" (every), "halite" (everyone/everybody), "halis" (everything), "keisi" (everywhere), "pure" (always), "halesh" (in every way) and "halim" (for every reason).

    The "any" words are "eis" (any), "eidu" (anyone/anybody), "eilag" (anything), "keiru" (anywhere), "eire" (anywhere, with numbers), "eigat" (anytime), "eitesh" (in any way), "eyor" (anything like) and "eigel" (for any reason).

    The "some" words are "fa" (some), "famoi" (someone/somebody), "fas" (something), "keitzam" (somewhere), "fazre" (somewhere, with numbers), "afaspaz" (sometimes), "fatesh" (in some way, somehow), "famor" (something like), "fashiz" (for some reason), "faru" (someday) and "ti*i" (some kind of).

    The more specific "some" words add -bi: "fabi" (some, specific ones), "homonbi" (some, a specific one), "famoibi" (someone/somebody), "fasbi" (something), "keitzambi" (somewhere), "fazrebi" (somewhere, with numbers), "afaspazbi" (sometimes), "fateshbi (in some way, somehow), "farubi" (someday) and ti*ibi (some kind of).

    The "no" words are "nos" (no/none), "ou" (no one/nobody), "akh" (nothing), "keyokh" (nowhere), "avim" (never), "oos" (in no way), "ouwor" (nothing like) and "ousim" (for no reason).

    "Any" words are used instead of "some" words under four conditions:

    1. When asking a question:

    Mahan wir wahazas faz eilag azosas ovai id maikrimia isim?
    do? we be_able_to+PRESENT do anything besides watch done_to television today
    Can we do anything besides watch television today?

    2. With a negative:

    Poshoi ayinas ad is eis bedan avim.
    opium give+PRESENT to me any pleasure never
    Opium never gives me any pleasure

    3. After "yakh" (if), in a conditional or irrealis clause:

    Yakh ar *aizios eis ziyenes, yau wovinget is dash.
    if you experience+FUTURE any problem+PLURAL then call+IMPERATIVE me simply
    If you have any problems, just call me.

    Yakh Stesa an keiru ad uhu ad ad ekkhi, yau wan os ien e ma pwuspud.
    if Stesa have anywhere to go to for vacation then she not would be so unhappy
    If Stesa had anywhere to go for vacation, she wouldn't be so unhappy.

    4. When used as if followed by "at all":

    Shul retshiya er amekios os shezdalas az hales meyez merstari as tethesfashes zavakid, wan so shezdalas az eis aas.
    while incident at subway not prove+PRESENT that all people homeless are killer+PLURAL bloodthirsty it so prove+PRESENT that any exist+PRESENT
    While the subway incident does not prove that all homeless people are bloodthirsty killers, it does prove that some exist.

    Other situations use "some" words:

    Fas meshudzas is, mui is os hauess adaz ham as.
    something bother+PRESENT me and I not know+PRESENT what+that that is
    Something's bothering me, and I don't know what it is.

    Afaspaz is payoas hous Bikason.
    sometimes I think+PRESENT about Bikason
    Sometimes I think about Bikason.

    The "some" words ending in -bi are used when there is a known, specific entity being referred to, but for some reason the speaker isn't revealing what it is:

    Is anas fasbi deyen ad ar.
    I have+PRESENT something special for you
    I have something special for you.

    Is akranos ar ad keitzambi shayam deyen.
    I take+FUTURE you to somewhere very special
    I'm taking you somewhere very special.

    Is *asas famoibi az phoros kakapin rish.
    I know+PRESENT someone who receive+FUTURE spanking soon
    I know someone who's getting a spanking soon.

    Sentencials


    The following interjections are used:
  • Uo! - long-lasting, dull pain
  • Ayi! - sudden, sharp pain
  • Han! - shock
  • Wur! - fright
  • Tiha! - discovery
  • Eyala! - suspicion
  • Ari! - celebration
  • Agu! - booing
  • Ahirr! - frustration
  • Raharaha! - laughter
  • Howah! - crying
  • Et... - pausing
  • OSDA! - NOT!
  • Eakh! - intellectual disgust
  • Aikhah! - disgust (being grossed out by a squashed snail, etc.)
  • Frifri! - personal titillation
  • Phtut! - pouting
  • Tzuiy! - commenting that a person is attractive

    Negatives


    A negative sentence takes "os" before the verb; "os" before another word makes it negative:

    Is os betzithas ar.
    I not love+PRESENT you
    I do not love you.

    Os Aniya hiros dakas rei.
    not Aniya serve+FUTURE daka+PLURAL then
    Aniya won't be the one to serve dakas then.

    Aniya os hiros dakas rei.
    Aniya not serve+FUTURE daka+PLURAL then
    Aniya will be preparing/eating, etc. dakas then, not serving them.

    Aniya hiros os dakas rei.
    Aniya serve+FUTURE not daka+PLURAL then
    Aniya will be serving cranberries, but not dakas then.

    Aniya hiros dakas os rei.
    Aniya serve+FUTURE daka+PLURAL not then
    Aniya will indeed serve dakas, but some other time.

    "Os" comes before a prepositional phrase (including a possessive) when it modifies the prepositional phrase:

    Argas vugas thashak aas er Kankonia, am os mer lei.
    many snake+PLURAL poisonous exist+PRESENT at Kankonia but not around here
    There are many poisonous snakes on Kankonia, but not around here.

    Ham daiking as os na ar, zha Shawn.
    that motorcycle is not of you VOCATIVE Shawn
    That motorcycle is not yours, Shawn.

    A negative infinitive takes "os" before the infinitive verb. In sentences with helping verbs, if there is a direct object, the adverb "os" comes after the helping verb and before the infinitive, followed by the verb's object:

    Is novosen os dehoi iksa.
    I try+PAST not lose camera
    I tried not to lose the camera.

    With conjugated verbs that are not helping verbs, use the conjugated verb, then "os", then the infinitive, then "id" if there is an object:

    Is esmiyain os ayarm id heyitzas.
    I learn+PAST not hate done_to bee+PLURAL
    I learned not to hate bees.

    With vaic verbs, the negative "os" comes after the word "va", and as usual with vaic constructions an "id" is not used:

    Dezha *aitzarten va os abam luzkat inam kam myu oiras kalukumbe.
    Dezha start+PAST VA-PARTICLE not eat meal one+th on a_few year+PLURAL before+then
    Dezha started not eating breakfast a few years back.

    With helping verbs like "wahaz", "trai" and "el", placing "os" before the helping verb has a different meaning from placing it after. "Ar os trayas abam ham klanatzad" means "You don't have you eat this banana", while "Ar trayas os abam ham klanatzad" means "It is imperative that you not eat this banana". "Os elas" means someone may not do something, while "elas os" denotes that someone has permission not to do it.

    With the words "en" (was) and "os" (will be), "on" is used instead (but "os" is used with "enos", "enen", "osen" and "osos"):

    Phoriphio on en meya goyart.
    Phoriphio not was person nice
    Phoriphio was not a nice person.

    Is on os er zapoko engoi.
    I not will_be at coffeeshop tomorrow
    I will not be at the coffeeshop tomorrow.

    After a comma, "not" is translated by "amon":

    Ozuvwi guhait er ham *uthis as zhazh, amon shir.
    music popular at this town is zhazh not shir
    The popular music in this town is zhazh, not shir.

    The "any" words are "eis" (any), "eidu" (anyone/anybody), "eilag" (anything), "keiru" (anywhere), "eigat" (anytime), "eitesh" (in any way), "eyor: (anything like) and "eigel" (for any reason). The "no" words are "nos" (no/none), "ou" (no one/nobody), "akh" (nothing), "keyokh" (nowhere), "avim" (never), "oos" (in no way), "ouwor" (nothing like) and "ousim" (for no reason). The "any" words can be negated with "os". Double negatives are verboten in Kankonian. "I don't have anything to sell you" or "I have nothing to sell you" may be translated as either "Is os anas eilag ad tzemau ad ar" or "Is anas akh ad tzemau ad ar", but not "Is os anas akh ad tzemau ad ar". In statements where a negative word is used with "oor" (like), use "amnosnetz" (except itself) with the sentence:

    Akh oor zedai aas amnosnetz.
    nothing like heroin exist+PRESENT except+itself
    There's nothing like heroin (except heroin itself).

    Only


    The word for "only" in Kankonian is oul. "Oul" may function as an adjective:

    Zekhani en oul meshi ad is.
    Zekhani was only friend to me
    Zekhani was my only friend.

    but also functions as an adverb. As a rule, "oul" comes before whichever word the concept of "only" applies to, much like "os".

    Oul geteres dzhavash elas traniz ad balvintar ad Kho*ota*ai na Kwemos.
    only soldier+PLURAL exceptional may+PRESENT promote+PASSIVE to general to armed_forces of Kwemos
    Only exceptional soldiers may be promoted to general in the Kwemos Armed Forces.

    Wan wakhiras oul welt na smezi.
    He drink+PRESENT only juice of cranberry
    He only drinks cranberry juice.

    Is oul arditzas zurmasineyis; is os peras wan.
    I only write+PRESENT science+fiction I not read+PRESENT it
    I only write science fiction, I don't read it.

    Oul spas paketenas.
    only week elapse+PAST+PRESENT
    It's only been a week.

    "Oul" may also come before a prepositional phrase, in which case it comes right before the connective:

    Ham elas ovayiz oul dyu ar.
    this may+PRESENT view+PASSIVE only by you
    This is for your eyes only.

    In an "only . . . if" sentence, the word "oul" (only) comes right before "yakh":

    Is hilmiss abam papkorn oul yakh wan as na tshyabe.
    I be_willing_to+PRESENT eat popcorn only if it is of caramel
    I'll only eat popcorn if it's caramel.

    Numbers


    0 ekht
    1 in
    2 bam
    3 em
    4 hol
    5 kyu
    6 sem
    7 treil
    8 fur
    9 hel
    10 zan
    11 zanin
    12 zanbam
    13 zanem
    14 zanhol
    15 zankyu
    16 zansem
    17 zantreil
    18 zanfur
    19 zanhel
    20 blat
    21 blatin
    25 blatkyu
    29 blat-hel
    30 dern
    35 dernkyu
    40 hosp
    49 hosp-hel
    50 kozanis
    60 sizanis
    69 sizanis-hel
    70 tranis
    75 traniskyu
    80 fuzanis
    81 fuzanisin
    88 fuzanisfur
    90 helzanis
    91 helzanisin
    100 ram
    108 ram-fur
    150 ram-kozanis
    175 ram-traniskyu
    200 bam-ram
    501 kyu-ram-in
    999 hel-ram-helzanis-hel
    1,000 zes
    5,681 kyu-zes-sem-ram-fuzanisin OR kyu-zes-sem-fur-in 10,000 isass
    100,000 dukhel
    237,604 bam-dukhel-em-isass-treil-zes-sem-ram-hol OR bam-dukhel-em-treil-sem-ekht-hol 1,000,000 gahelsi
    10,000,000 brahelsi
    100,000,000 sihelsi
    1,000,000,000 muhelsi
    10,000,000,000 shuhelsi
    100,000,000,000 naihelsi
    1,000,000,000,000 sraniska
    10,000,000,000,000 zan sraniska
    100,000,000,000,000 ram sraniska
    1,000,000,000,000,000 deviska
    1 quintillion armiska
    1 sextillion gegiska
    1 septillion atriska
    1 octillion zes atriska
    1 nonillion gahelsi atriska
    1 decillion muhelsi atriska
    1 undecillion sebuda
    1 quindecillion marnuda
    1 novemdecillion kholuda
    1 trevigintillion ishuda

    For first say "inam", for second "bamam", for third "emam", etc. The -iska and -uda words drop an A before the suffix, so trillionth is "sraniskam".

    Add the suffix -iksi for a fractional part: one quarter = holiksi; one millionth = gahelsiiksi.

    Mixed numbers combine the whole number with the fraction by use of "mui" (and): three and five eighths is "em mui kyu furiksas".

    Once is "baisin", twice "baispam" and thrice "baisem". After that, you have to say "shil" (for) with the number word and then "peses" (times): shil hol peses (four times), shil kyu peses (five times), shil zan peses (ten times), etc.:

    Bein zentzizen dyu karaph shil hospsem peses.
    boy bite+PASSIVE+PAST by dog for forty-six time+PLURAL
    The boy was bitten by the dog forty-six times.

    When a number word in applied to more than one noun, it refers to the total of those nouns put together. For instance, in the sentence:

    Hol makekas mui malazas as e alhas na Shishani.
    four boy+PLURAL and girl+PLURAL are in class of Shishani
    There are four boys and girls in Shishani's class.

    the meaning is that her class has two boys and two girls, or three boys and one girl, or one boy and three girls.

    With constructions such as this, the nominals that are counted must all be plural: you would still say "hol makekas mui malazas" even if there were three girls and only one boy, not "hol makeke mui malazas".

    Conversely, if we apply the particle "osh" to a number word, the sentence:

    Hol makekas mui osh malazas as e alhas na Shishani.
    four boy+PLURAL and OSH-PARTICLE girl+PLURAL are in class of Shishani
    There are four boys and four girls in Shishani's class.

    means that her class has four boys and four girls.

    "Osh" should come after a number word if it is applied to a kinship term or body part:

    Natia sinas zherdu em mui zwanzu osh.
    Natia have+PRESENT brother+PLURAL three and sister+PLURAL OSH-PARTICLE
    Natia has three brothers and three sisters.

    Hales geteres anen gue*es bam mui angas osh.
    all soldier+PLURAL have+PAST arm+PLURAL two and leg+PLURAL OSH-PARTICLE
    All the soldiers had two arms and two legs.

    Age is described with the verb "shta" (to measure):

    Is shtaas 20 oiras.
    I measure+PRESENT 20 year+PLURAL
    I am 20 years old.

    Nothan shtaas 3 blatzas.
    newborn measure+PRESENT 3 day+PLURAL
    The newborn is 3 days old.

    Helemas ad is ayinen ad is ham glob av is shtaen 15 oiras.
    mother to me give+PAST to me this ring when I measure+PAST 15 year+PLURAL
    My mother gave this ring to me when I was 15.

    The connective "hel" is used for the adjective n-year-old:

    Is duwainen bein hel 19 oiras helesit Paul.
    I meet+PAST boy with 19 year+PLURAL named Paul
    I met a 19-year-old boy named Paul.

    Trini as zwaniz hel 7 drertes ad is.
    Trini is sister with 7 month+PLURAL to me
    Trini is my 7-month-old sister.

    Au meya hel 4 oiras wahazas azraum ham.
    even person with 4 year+PLURAL be_able_to+PRESENT figure_out this
    Even a 4-year-old could figure this out.

    Phurtis koilizen dyu tomoghas na meyez giri hel 15 oiras.
    actress surround+PASSIVE+PAST by horde of person+PLURAL horny with 15 year+PLURAL
    The actress was surrounded by a horde of horny 15-year-olds.

    The verb "letz" is used before an age to indicate turning an age ("oiras" is not normally used):

    Av storman Rasaphi letzas 13, wan *ahinas aphmyular na wan.
    when kid Rasaphi turn+PRESENT 13 s/he celebrate+PRESENT aphmyular of her/him
    When a Rasaphi kid turns 13, she or he has her or his aphmyular.

    Av Safira letzen 100, donam draiken ad wan valia helaudi.
    when Safira turn+PAST 100 president send+PAST to her letter congratulatory
    When Safira turned 100, the president sent her a congratulatory letter.

    The construction "letz n mos nodoi semesh" (turn n while still alive) is used to express living to be an age:

    Rambispes as meyez az letzas 100 mos nodoi semesh.
    centenarian+PLURAL are person+PLURAL who turn+PRESENT 100 while still alive
    Centenarians are people who live to be 100.

    Emiemiemiemihoimas ad is letzen 540 mos nodoi semesh.
    great-great-great-grandfather to me turn+PAST 540 while still alive
    My great-great-great-grandfather lived to be 540.

    The construction "mutzena shta id n" is used to indicate how old a person looks (as with "letz", the word for months/years is not normally used):

    Piva er huduponia mutzenain shta id veye 17.
    girl at skatepark resemble+PAST measure done_to about 17
    The girl at the skatepark looked about 17.

    Terry shtaas 453 oiras, am wan mutzenass shta id 60.
    Terry measure+PRESENT 453 year+PLURAL but he resemble+PRESENT measure done_to 60
    Terry is 453 years old, but he looks 60.

    Ar os mutzenass shta id blahatz wanono 40.
    you not resemble+PRESENT measure done_to day past 40
    You don't look a day over 40.

    With "vai" (over) or "sun" (under), the word "menir" (age) and "zash" are normally used before an age:

    Ou vai menir zash 2 as eosa we iyef.
    nobody over age APPOSITIVE 2 is true -ly happy
    No one over the age of 2 is truly happy.

    Welas sun menir zash 10 edtirizen.
    child+PLURAL under age APPOSITIVE 10 keep_out+PASSIVE+PAST
    Children under 10 were kept out.

    Floors are numbered as per American English, so "behush inam" means first floor (American) or ground floor (British), "behush bamam" means second floor (American) or first floor (British), "behush emam" means third floor (American) or second floor (British), etc.

    Numbers usually come before the noun (kyu vropes, five grapes; hosp blatzas, forty days). With body parts and family members, however, they come after the noun (khodes em, three ears; zwanzu hol, four sisters). This also applies to excerptal body parts and family members (hekhiat bam na is, two of my fingers; zherdut em ad wan, three of his brothers). Only, almost, etc. come after the body word or kinship term but before the number: bwolwo oul in (only one eye). When body parts are used to refer to parts of inanimate objects, such as "gheri" to refer to the heel of a shoe, the number still comes after the noun:

    Khosh anas angas em.
    table have+PRESENT leg+PLURAL three
    The table has three legs.

    The number "one" is usually implied in an excerptal: to say "one of the doors", one would say "kutshat", not "in kutshat". However, if one is contrasted with another number by use of o (or), "in" is used:

    Wir fuiros e hesh wasakohir adshmelzas in wit o re argas de in wit aphos phokulet mos triho.
    we want+FUTURE be by restroom in_case one one_of_us or more many than one one_of_us get+FUTURE diarrhea during trip
    We'll want to be by a restroom in case one of us or more than one of us get diarrhea on the trip.

    Yakh sharat in o bam ad is blatzos weveng saipos, yau ham os plan das is.
    if daughter+EXCERPTAL one or two to me stay+FUTURE single for_life then that will_be fine according_to me
    If one or two of my daughters stay single for life, that's fine by me.

    Numbers also come after "inam" (first) or "andam" (last) to express "first two", "last three", etc.:

    Is phoren skenas na welt andam bam.
    I get+PAST bottle+PLURAL of juice last two
    I got the last two bottles of juice.

    When you have an excerptal and mention the total number of the nominal in question, the number word goes after the nominal:

    Alsazas az *iuwalas en maikrat kyu az torturen ad laniz.
    hero+PLURAL that shine+PRESENT was movie+EXCERPTAL five that win+PAST to award
    Shining Heroes was one of five movies to win an award.

    Is en sharat em.
    I was daughter+EXCERPTAL three
    I was one of three girls.

    Fur ewadat zansem en ab Hita.
    eight finalist+EXCERPTAL ten+six were from Hita
    Eight of sixteen finalists were from Hita.

    The excerptal number goes before the excerptal nominal in such constructions, even if the nominal is a family member or body part:

    Kyu yedet treil utoyen.
    five son+EXCERPTAL seven marry+PAST
    Five of seven sons married.

    To use "re argas" (more) or "hi argas" (less) with a number, use the words "re argas" or "hi argas", followed by "hom" (by) and then the number word:

    re argas hom bam huwas: two more nights
    hi argas hom em skenas: three fewer bottles
    re argas zwaniz hom in: one more sister
    hi argas kiketes hom bam: two fewer ribs

    When a cardinal number is used to number something, place the number word after the noun and put "zash" before the number:

    Is ailiss er shakti zash kyu-ekht-in-ekht-bam.
    I live+PRESENT at house APPOSITIVE five-zero-one-zero-two
    I live in house 50102.

    When letters (K, A, M, Sh, I, T, etc.) are used to "number" something, the word "zash" comes in between the letter and the preceding noun:

    Is udeyaten hakim zash M, tataya blatz er shakti.
    I choose+PAST option APPOSITIVE C namely stay at house
    I chose option C: stay home.

    For ranks, put the noun before the connective "helihil" (with rank) and then the number word:

    Wan as daluye helihil in er poilang odum umbe.
    it is song with+rank one at country right now
    It's the #1 song in the country right now.

    Prefixes


    These prefixes can build words in Kankonian:

    ad-: denotes making something towards something (from the preposition for to/for); often turns nouns or adjectives into verbs)
  • favozh (charge) -> adfavozh (to charge)
  • hashar (clean) -> adhashar (to clean)

    hel-: denotes use of an object, or being with something (from the preposition for with)
  • fulas (mop) -> helfulas (to mop)
  • yarma (frustration) -> helyarma (frustrated)

    oel-: denotes being without something (from the preposition for without)
  • vetzezh (caffeine) -> oelvetzezh (decaf)
  • koruk (touch) -> oelkoruk (laissez-faire)

    az-: a prefix derived from the relative "az" (that)
  • apar (to feel an external sensation) -> azapar (to feel an organic sensation)
  • *auv (argument, quarrel) -> az*auv (argument, reasoning for one's position in a debate)

    na-: makes an adjective meaning pertaining to
  • bubal (palm of the hand) -> nabubal (palmar)
  • danshin (reason, logic) -> nadanshin (rational, logical)

    oor-: indicates that something is like something (from the connective for like/as)
  • koharul (actinium) -> oorkoharul (actinide)
  • alpas (human) -> ooralpas (hominid)

    kaluk-: means before
  • kroikanv (literate) -> kalukkroikanv (preliterate)
  • tifiliy (sexual playing) -> kaluktifiliy (foreplay)

    ehem-: means after
  • begini (history) -> ehembegini (postmodern)
  • wudun (flood) -> ehemwudun (postdiluvian)

    me-: means not
  • dabavzor (violent) -> medabavzor (nonviolent)
  • taimon (human) -> metaimon (nonhuman)

    loi- or loy-: denotes that an action is occurring again
  • dad (to elect) -> loidad (to reëlect)
  • etzet (to heat up) -> loyetzet (to reheat)

    en-: forms a verb meaning to have something on the body
  • bad (head) -> enbad (to wear on the head)
  • omen (face) -> enomen (to wear a facial expression)

    mer-: denotes a center around which something revolves (from the preposition for around)
  • heles (sun) -> merheles (heliocentric)
  • Hegheos (continent on Kankonia) -> merhegheos (Hegheocentric)

    der-: indicates a noun meaning enough to fill something
  • bordar (truck) -> derbordar (truckload)
  • humbar (boat) -> derhumbar (boatload)

    khom-: forms an adjective meaning that something is safe from something
  • kaksith (bomb) -> khomkaksith (bombproof)
  • efesh (baby) -> khomefesh (babyproof)

    hevu-: indicates a relationship in a combined family
  • yed (son) -> hevuyed (stepson)
  • teret (family) -> hevuteret (stepfamily)

    minu-: indicates something halfway so
  • bamosh (sweet) -> minubamosh (semisweet)
  • zinyam (public) -> minuzinyam (semipublic)

    tithi-: indicates a thousandth of a unit of measurement
  • imis (unit of time) -> tithiimis (1/1,000 of an imis)
  • tzandar (unit of weight) -> tithitzandar (1/1,000 of a tzandar)

    nish-: indicates a millionth of a unit of measurement
  • gwanar (unit of liquid volume) -> nishgwanar (1/1,000,000 of a gwanar)
  • tzetz (unit of length) -> nishtzetz (1/1,000,000 of a tzetz)

    vil-: indicates a billionth of a unit of measurement
  • tzandar (unit of weight) -> viltzandar (1/1,000,000,000 of a tzandar)
  • tzetz (unit of length) -> viltzetz (1/1,000,000,000 of a tzetz)

    berlid-: indicates a trillionth of a unit of measurement
  • imis (unit of time) -> berlidimis (1/1,000,000,000,000 of an imis)
  • gwanar (unit of liquid volume) -> berlidgwanar (1/1,000,000,000,000 of a gwanar)

    wabush-: indicates something false or fake
  • zurmas (science) -> wabushzurmas (pseudoscience)
  • payasos (profundity) -> wabushpayasos (pseudoprofundity)

    audes-: indicates that something is applied to itself
  • nophatwal (discussion) -> audesnophatwal (metadiscussion)
  • iyes (story) -> audesiyes (frame story)

    Suffixes


    These suffixes can build words in Kankonian:

    -os: turns an adjective into an abstract noun, meaning "the state of being"
  • beltzam (hypocritical) -> beltzamos (hypocrisy)
  • goyart (kind) -> goyartos (kindness)

    -is: means a person associated with something, similar to English -ist
  • vatzbak (guitar) -> vatzbakis (guitarist)
  • shphurm (to sail) -> shphurmis (sailor)
  • em (three) -> emis (triplet)
  • gahelsi (million) -> gahelsis (millionaire)

    -fash: makes a verb into an agent noun, similar to English -er
  • tortur (to win) -> torturfash (winner)
  • datir (to rebel) -> datirfash (rebel)

    -ov: indicates a measure of degree of something
  • ilt (tall) -> iltov (height)
  • kampas (far) -> kampasov (distance)

    -i: turns a noun or verb into an adjective
  • welt (juice) -> welti (juicy)
  • shuvrim (to pervade, to permeate) -> shuvrimi (pervasive)

    -i: indicates an adjective or noun for the practitioner of a religion
  • Guzhud (Hell) -> Guzhudi (Hadeist)
  • rasaph (Ciladian for ultimate incarnation) -> Rasaphi (member of the Rasaphi religion)

    -as: indicates a noun for the name of a religion
  • Guzhud (Hell) -> Guzhudas (Hadeism)
  • rasaph (Ciladian for ultimate incarnation) -> Rasaphas (Rasaphism)

    -ish: makes a noun into a noun that means "the state of being an X"
  • hoimas (father) -> hoimish (paternity)
  • malazi (little girl) -> malazish (girlhood)

    -ia: means place for
  • venta (animal, pet) -> ventia (pet shop)
  • shazhora (frozen yogurt) -> shazhoria (yogurt parlor)

    -ya: means the scientific study of something
  • windi (cell) -> windya (cytology)
  • hwurish (paranormal) -> hwurishya (parapsychology)

    -laya: indicates study of a taxonomic group
  • bazruva (reptile) -> bazruvlaya (herpetology)
  • peksis (insect) -> pekslaya (entomology)

    -em: makes an adjective out of a body part
  • ne*et (nose) -> ne*etem (nasal)
  • fulpha (cheek) -> fulphem (buccal)

    -i*: makes the juvenile form of an animal
  • thothu (cat) -> thothui* (kitten)
  • vivir (eagle) -> viviri* (eaglet)

    -ore: indicates a collective species
  • alpas (human) -> alpore (humanity)
  • maglimez (chimpanzee) -> maglimezore (chimpkind)

    -oi: indicates a word or turn-of-phrase peculiar to a language or dialect
  • Tzelan (Tzelshan island) -> Tzelanoi (Tzelanism)
  • Vikasko (isolated social group living in the deserts of Povoi) -> Vikaskoi (Vikaskism)

    -ik: indicates nationality, ethnicity, living somewhere or language
  • Shaleya (Shaleya) -> Shaleyik (Shaleyan)
  • Rensha (Rensha) -> Renshik (Renshan)
  • tzaf (beach) -> tzafik (beachwad)
  • davren (academia) -> davrenik (academese)

    -liv: indicates a speaker of a language
  • Inglish (English) -> Inglishliv (Anglophone)
  • Hapowi (Hapoi) -> Hapowiliv (Hapoiphone)

    -isp: indicates a specifically ethnic member of a people
  • Kankonia (Kankonia) -> Kankonisp (ethnic Kankonian)
  • Shaleya (Shaleya) -> Shaleyisp (ethnic Shaleyan)

    -or: indicates an inhabitant or citizen of a place, regardless of ethnicity
  • Hita (Hita) -> Hitor (Hitan citizen, of any ethnicity)
  • Tenta (Tenta) -> Tentor (Tentan citizen, of any ethnicity)

    -or: indicates a slight tendency towards a color
  • gudum (red) -> gudumor (reddish)
  • wowum (blue) -> wowumor (bluish)

    -eria: indicates a place, a collection, or an abstract noun made from a concrete noun
  • tei (monarch) -> teyeria (kingdom)
  • esit (name) -> esiteria (onomasticon)
  • uhul (school) -> uhuleria (schooling)

    -om: indicates a bag for something
  • *uyub (potato) -> *uyubom (potato sack)
  • khuphus (feces) -> khuphusom (diaper)

    -ar: forms words to denote way or style
  • osi (future) -> osiar (futurism; futuristic)
  • deves (conventional, traditional) -> devesar (the traditional way)

    -ming: indicates being without something in a positive or relieving way (from the word for "free")
  • uag (angst) -> uagming (angst-free)
  • yiem (tax) -> yiemming (duty-free shop)

    -in: indicates a specific one or example of something (from the word for one)
  • shumir (to wish) -> shumirin (wish)
  • butzekh (to restrict) -> butzekhin (stricture)

    -in: used with "abam" (to eat) to make an adjective indicating diet
  • venta (animal) -> ventabamin (carnivorous)
  • shukh (fruit) -> shukhabamin (frugivorous)

    -in: forms the names of hormones
  • salv (female) -> salvin (estrogen)
  • ilt (tall) -> iltin (human growth hormone)

    -iz: turns the name of a food into the name of a chemical or nutrient in the food
  • kwuha (licorice) -> kwuhiz (glycyrrhizin)
  • shoip (tomato) -> shoipiz (lycopene)

    -oides: forms adjectives pertaining to a certain landform or biome
  • hazas (river) -> hazathoides (riparian)
  • Skhatza (the planet Schaza) -> skhatzoides (pertaining to schazoid slime)

    -shad: creates an arch or ultimate form of a word
  • zyuzos (enemy) -> zyuzosshad (archenemy)
  • matel (cobra) -> matelshad (king cobra)

    -an: forms a grammatical term out of another word
  • shuar (ownership) -> shuaran (genitive)
  • houm (about what) -> houman (question-relative)

    -inos: forms a grammatical term out of another word
  • az (that, which, who(m)) -> azinos (relative)
  • kant (to act) -> kantinos (agent)

    -ang: forms a name for a type of verb out of another word
  • payo (to think) -> payoang (thinking verb)
  • hesi (to speak) -> hesiang (speaking verb)

    -bi: makes a general "some" word into a "some" word zeroing in on a special entity
  • famoi (someone/somebody) -> famoibi (someone/somebody, with a specific person in mind)
  • keitzam (somewhere) -> keitzambi (somewhere, with a specific location in mind)

    -am: makes an ordinal number
  • in (one) -> inam (first)
  • hol (four) -> holam (fourth)

    -iksi: makes a fractional number
  • bam (two) -> bamiksi (half)
  • zes (thousand) -> zesiksi (thousandth)

    -a: makes a number word into an -uple word
  • bam (two) -> bama (double)
  • treil (seven) -> treila (septuple)

    -ikh: makes a word to measure divisions of rankings
  • zapanram (percent) -> zapanramikh (percentile)
  • treil (seven) -> treilikh (septile)

    -zad: indicates the number of sides on a two-dimensional figure
  • kyu (five) -> kyuzad (pentagon)
  • zan (ten) -> zanzad (decagon)

    -had: indicates the number of faces on a three-dimensional figure
  • fur (eight) -> furhad (octahedron)
  • blat (twenty) -> blat-had (icosahedron)

    -bisp: makes a number word into an age range
  • blat (twenty) -> blatbisp (twentysomething)
  • ram (hundred) -> rambisp (centenarian)

    -ok: indicates a number of ways or reasons
  • bam (two) -> bamok (doubly)
  • kyu (five) -> kyuok (quintuply)

    -era: indicates number of books/movies/albums in a series
  • em (three) -> emera (trilogy)
  • treil (seven) -> treilera (heptalogy)

    -athe: makes a number into a grammatical number
  • bam (two) -> bamathe (dual)
  • em (three) -> emathe (trial)

    -tes: indicates multiplication by a number
  • treil (seven) -> treiltes (sevenfold)
  • argas (many) -> argastes (manifold)

    -ob: indicates number of copies of a paper
  • em (three) -> emob (triplicate)
  • kyu (nine) -> kyuob (nonuplicate)

    -bov: forms a word to indicate the number of jacks played in jacks-type games
  • hol (four) -> holbov (foursies)
  • fur (eight) -> furbov (eightsies)

    -hekt: denotes the surgical removal of an organ
  • kariks (appendix) -> kariks-hekt (appendectomy)
  • giu*a (tonsil) -> giu*ahekt (tonsillectomy)

    -at: forms the name of a particle
  • os (not) -> osat (electron)
  • uweish (glue) -> uweishat (gluon)

    -enya: is a suffix from Shaleyan forming the name of a drug
  • pham (Shaleyan plant) -> phamenya (phamein)
  • tosfaba (apricot) -> tosfabenya (laetrile)

    -izh: makes an eponymous adjective out of someone's name
  • Dadilas (name of the Kabuvian general) -> dadilasizh (behaving like Dadilas)
  • Pozer (name of the ancient lesbian poet) -> pozerizh (lesbian)

    Color Words


    Here are the basic colors in Kankonian:

    karak: black
    kiul: white
    viriz: grey
    gudum: red (includes maroon)
    rahat: orange
    hilis: yellow
    kran: green (includes aqua)
    wowum: blue (includes turquoise)
    kratsh: purple (includes burgundy, lavender and indigo)
    likt: pink (includes magenta)
    blan: brown
    dania: dark brown
    thilev: beige (includes cream)
    hihim: gold
    blintz: silver

    "Dania" is used for darker brown than "blan", and is the word used for dark brown hair or skin. Brown eyes, however, are always referred to with "blan", no matter how dark they are.

    Here are some other color words:

    gudumnawoan: maroon
    woiposkran: aqua
    kwatkwon: turquoise
    bupra: burgundy
    dumis: lavender
    vovav: indigo
    nivu: magenta
    thrishthilev: cream

    "Kar" and "splen" may be placed after a color name to indicate a dark or light shade of the color: "kran kar" means dark green and "kran splen" means light green.

    Hair can be described as ski (blonde), regi (dirty blonde, a subset of ski), ski na tosfaba (strawberry blonde, a subset of ski), shrazh (sandy), rahat (red), singez (reddish-brown), blan (brown), dania (dark brown), karak (black), viriz (grey), kiul (white) or fwelkheta (salt-and-pepper).

    Human eyes are described as wowum (blue), viriz (grey), kran (green), uviwa (amber), santz (hazel), kratsh (violet), blan (brown), brunolgi (with heterochromia iridum), zasiun (changing) or oeloimoni (aniridiate).

    Kinship Terms


    Kankonian uses the following kinship terms:

    mother: helemas
    father: hoimas
    parents: homoses
    sister: zwaniz (pl. zwanzu)
    brother: zhered (pl. zherdu)
    sibling: surten (pl. surtei)
    wife/husband: ashelti
    daughter: shara
    son: yed
    child: noto
    aunt/uncle (parent's sibling): ladan
    aunt/uncle (parent's sibling's spouse): mesim
    niece/nephew (sibling's child): elfom
    niece/nephew (spouse's sibling's child): herang
    female cousin: mera
    male cousin: kanwir
    cousin: shaniz
    grandmother: emihelemas
    grandfather: emihoimas
    grandparents: emihomoses
    granddaughter: obishara
    grandson: obiyed
    grandchild: obinoto
    great-grandmother: emiemihelemas
    great-grandfather: emiemihoimas
    great-grandparents: emiemihomoses
    great-granddaughter: obiobishara
    great-grandson: obiobiyed
    great-grandchildren: obiobinoto
    great-aunt/great-uncle: emiladan
    cousin once removed: shyudan
    sister-in-law: dzhemal
    brother-in-law: seres
    mother-in-law: shefri
    father-in-law: tarmat
    daughter-in-law: selmi
    son-in-law: dzheisi
    stepmother: hevuhelemas
    stepfather: hevuhoimas
    stepparents: hevuhomoses
    stepdaughter: hevushara
    stepson: hevuyed
    stepchild: hevunoto
    stepsister: hevuzwaniz (pl. hevuzwanzu)
    stepbrother: hevuzhered (pl. hevuzherdu)
    stepsibling: hevusurten (pl. hevusurtei)
    half-sister: bamiksizwaniz (pl. bamiksizwanzu)
    half-brother: bamiksizhered (pl. bamiksizherdu)
    half-sibling: bamiksisurten (pl. bamiksisurtei)
    significant other, life partner: mabekad
    co-wife/co-husband: muyeashelti (muyea for short)
    sperm donor: kherisezhobor
    fiancée/fiancé: lai

    Ageing Terms


    Before someone is born, s/he is a haihi (fetus). After s/he is born, up until her/his thirteenth birthday, s/he is a welas. A female welas is a malazi, and a male welas is a makeke. A welas aged 0 or 1 is an efesh. For the first month after birth, an efesh is a nothan. A welas aged 2 or 3 is a kyufa. From age 4 until s/he starts school after her/his sixth birthday, s/he is a polas. Upon starting uhul welas at 6 to age 12, s/he becomes an uhulwelis. The term uhulwelis sometimes includes 13-year-olds who have yet to graduate from an uhul welas, but other times it is interpreted strictly as a subset of welas and therefore excludes people who have had their thirteenth birthday.

    From 13 to 29, a person is a storman. A female storman is a piva, and a male storman is a bein. Piva and bein are usually used for people 30 to 39 as well. Someone who is 20 in 29 in Kankonian years is a blatbisp; a twentysomething in Earth years is a twentisamthing.

    From age 30 up, a person is a khorom. Vaihospis is also used to mean, by definition, someone over 40, and is equivalent to saying "grown woman" or "grown man", while the meaning of khorom is closer to "adult". Khorom, by contrast, is sometimes used to mean something similar to ranweteboernis, which means everyone who isn't a welas. A female khorom is a mopiga, and a male khorom is a wiri. Someone 30 to 49 is a nupanis, while someone 50 to 69 is a barzamis. In Kankonian years, a person 30 to 39 is a dernbisp, a person 40 to 49 a hospbisp, a person 50 to 59 a kozanisbisp, and a person 60 to 69 a sizanisbisp. Using the length of Earth years, someone 30 to 39 is a thoertisamthing, someone 40 to 49 is a fortisamthing, someone 50 to 59 is a kwinkwadzhenarian and someone 60 to 69 is a seksadzhenarian. Anyone 70 or older is a wetzfoneris. In Kankonian years, a person 70 to 79 is a tranisbisp, a person 80 to 89 is a fuzanisbisp, a person 90 to 99 is a helzanisbisp, and a person over 100 is a rambisp. Using the length of Earth years, someone 70 to 79 is a septuadzhenarian, someone 80 to 89 is an oktodzhenarian, someone 90 to 99 is a nonadzhenarian and someone over 100 is a zentenarian. Among rambispes, someone 100 to 199 is an inrambisp, someone 200 to 299 a bamrambisp, someone 300 to 399 an emrambisp, someone 400 to 499 a holrambisp, someone 500 to 599 a kyurambisp, someone 600 to 699 a semrambisp, someone 700 to 799 a treilrambisp, someone 800 to 899 a furrambisp, someone 900 to 999 a helrambisp and someone over 1,000 a zesbisp.

    Useful Phrases


    Yes - So
    No - Thi
    Maybe - Hole
    I don't know - Is os hauess
    Hello/hi - Hau; hai; tohayes isim
    Good morning - Guzhiet galir
    Good evening - Guzhiet armar
    Good night - Guzhiet huwos
    Good-bye - Melse wit yeizas enkut etza rei (or the less morbid melse wit); autran; dui
    Hello (on telephone) - Zaniken
    Thank you - Izar
    You're welcome - Ar os kuless
    Hello, my name is Jennifer. - Hau, esit na is as Jennifer.
    Hi, I'm Tom. - Hai, is as Tom.
    What is your name? - Hiel as esit na ar?
    Pleased to meet you. - Guzhias duwain.
    How old are you? - Ar shtaas anti oiras?
    I am 45 years old. - Is shtaas 45 oiras.
    How are you doing? - Ans ar gesas?
    I'm wonderful. - Is as satzim.
    I'm fine. - Is as plan.
    So-so - Brenetz
    Bad - Sharab
    Terrible - Ospre
    Excuse me / Hello? (I need to speak with you). - Adzha!
    Excuse me (let me get through). - Sendim.
    I'm sorry. - Is as weviya.
    Could you repeat that? - Mahan hiel?
    What time is it? - Wir *aizias hiel enles?
    It's 3:00. - Wir *aizias 3 na enles.
    It's 6:20. - Wir *aizias 6 mui 20.
    It is 17-7 (date). - Blahatz as 17 e 7.
    What is the weather like? - Wir anas hiel benus ad mesemiwa?
    It is raining. - Awivi pashas.
    It is snowing. - Ubru pashas.
    Do you speak English? - Mahan ar hesias Inglish?
    How do you say "menu" in Kankonian? - Ans o oyezas "menu" oor Kankonik?
    Where is the bathroom? - Iri wasakohir as?
    Where is the nearest hotel? - Iri anshpir tri oshowei as?
    I love you. - Is betzithas ar.

    Conversation


    To get a person's attention in Kankonian, you may say, "Hai" or another greeting, or you may address them by name, with the vocative preposition zha before her/his/their name(s): "Zha Danny!" This can also be accomplished non-verbally with a tap on the shoulder. If you do not know a person's name but need to call her/him from afar, say, "Zha mopiga!" (to a woman), "Zha wiri!" (to a man), "Zha piva!" (to a girl in her teens, twenties or thirties), "Zha bein!" (to a boy in his teens, twenties or thirties), "Zha malazi!" (to a little girl), or "Zha makeke!" (to a little boy). A "Zha malazi!", "Zha bein!", etc. greeting may be accompanied by tapping the person on the shoulder if you are near her or him. The sentence you ask the person will then be started with adzha (excuse me), e.g. "Adzha, mahan ar filess rave?" (Excuse me, do you know the way to the park?)

    A conversation may be started by asking someone for the time, a lighter, etc. or perhaps by one person taking interest in another person's clothes, hair, purse, pet, accent, etc.: "Ab iri ham shpur as?" (Where's that accent from? -- which will probably lead to a conversation about Povoi or Bodus or wherever the person comes from). It is possible for two strangers to converse only in small talk before going their separate ways and perhaps never crossing paths again. If the two interlocutors are new to each other, they will probably introduce themselves with "Hai, is as Alhe Zaya Danny" or "Hau, esit na is as Kora Akhlis Sandy" (native Kankonians usually use full names when introducing themselves). To ask how a person is doing, someone will ask, "Ans ar gesas?" Kankonians never say this just to be polite; they actually expect the other person to answer. Should a Kankonian ask how someone is, s/he will be prepared for a long story from her/his interlocutor (My pet sea dragon died yesterday, then my bicycle got a flat, and I've lost the code to my arcome . . . )

    The traditional greeting in Kankonian is Tohayes isim (greetings today) or simply Tohayes (greetings), although Hau and Hai are very common today. Saying Tohayes isim is similar to saying, "Salutations!" Hau! is usually glossed as "Hello!", while Hai! is usually glossed as its homonym "Hi!" There are also greetings for times of day: Guzhiet galir is good morning; Guzhiet armar is good evening; Guzhiet huwos is good night. These are less commonly used than their equivalents in Germanic or Romance languages, however. Over the telephone, someone greets her/his interlocutor with the word Zaniken!, meaning "connected!", as both speakers want to make sure the phone line is connected before they begin their conversation.

    Kankonians do not like to interrupt with an idle comment, and will often stare at a person as said person chats on the phone or ansible to avoid interrupting her/his conversation, hoping that s/he will notice them. When two or more Kankonians are talking, however, they are quick to notice a newcomer to the conversation who "wants in", and will make her/him feel welcome. If someone has an important thing to say when others are talking, s/he will usually say, "Ham as salishas!" (This is important!) The conversation is then handed over to her or him. Even if someone does interrupt a conversation, be it by ansible, by landline phone, by cellphone or in person, with something idle, the interruptee will try not to seem offended, to avoid seeming too strict about etiquette.

    The most common way of saying good-bye on Kankonia is Autran. Dui, meaning "later", equivalent to "See you later", is also very common. The traditional way of saying good-bye was "Melse wit yeizas enkut etza rei", which meant, "Unless one of us should die by then". Some like to shorten this to the less morbid "Melse wit!" instead. These greetings are also used over the phone. A Kankonian may also say "Is betzithas ar" (I love you) as a way of saying good-bye.

    A conversation in Kankonian involves turn-taking, with each participant speaking a few sentences (or a handful of words) at a time. Reciprocity keeps a conversation going. Extended silence by the person whose turn it is may indicate that s/he does not know what to say, or is afraid to say something. Judging by the person's facial expression, it may be possible to tell that s/he is completely confused by what has been said, or has not picked up on an unstated (false) assumption another person made. A person telling a long story may still have her/his story punctuated by comments from the listeners. Even during an academic lecture, the lecturer can expect to hear questions and comments from the attendees instead of giving an unbroken speech. To indicate you are still listening when someone else is taking a long turn, you may say "Youm" (equivalent to "mhm") or "Haum" ("Oh" or "I see") or "Ha" ("Mmmmm" or "OK") or even "Haum, ha" ("Oh, OK"). The average time between one speaker's statement and the next speaker's follow-up is 0.42 seconds in Hegheos, 0.44 seconds in Povoi, 0.47 seconds in Dumang, 0.49 seconds in Durben, 0.53 seconds in Kupulshas and 0.55 seconds in the Tzelshas Islands. The equivalent of "Ummmmmm . . .", indicating that the person is thinking of her/his answer, is "Shwe . . ."

    Fillers punctuate the conversations of Kankonians; the more uncertain they are or the more impromptu the conversation, the more frequent the fillers. "Se", equivalent to "like", is the most common filler. Sentences may be started with "Rauess" (You know,) or "Mei" (So . . .). "Mahan ar edeskas is?" (Do you grasp me?) is analogous to "You know what I'm saying?" Sentences may also be ended with stad (equivalent to "man" or "dude"), or with zha mopiga, zha wiri, zha piva, zha bein, zha malazi or zha makeke. Zha piva and zha bein are particularly common in song lyrics. Et is a common speech disfluency (think "er" or "um"). Haum or ha, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, may also be used.

    To ask someone to repeat what s/he has just said, Kankonians ask "Mahan hiel"? "Hiel" means "what", while "mahan" normally marks a yes/no question, bot in this case is simply used to signal that a question is coming up, so the interlocutor can be prepared to expect a question and the speakers will avoid both parties failing to hear each other. A helpful gesture in Kankonian conversation is the waudarzarami, in which one speaker will repeat a second speaker's sentence for a third party who did not hear what the second speaker said. For instance, suppose Danny, Tara and Zhizhi are in the room together. Danny says, "Is emen ili hous ezgrin er Sodar" (I saw a TV show about the war in Sodar) and Tara asks, "Mahan hiel?" (What did you say?) Zhizhi will then say, "Wan oyezen, 'Is emen ili hous ezgrin er Sodar'" (He said, "I saw a TV show about the war in Sodar").

    When recounting a conversation, Kankonians try to get the exact words and intonation right, often trying to replicate the speaker's deep/high/nasal/hyponasal/monotonous/animated voice. The word sen, clipped from parisen (conveyed), is used as a past tense verb with no present, future tense or infinitive, to informally tag a speaker in a conversation: Yau wan sen, "Rekh, stad!" (Then he was all, "Sure, dude!")

    The standard apology in Kankonian is "Is as weviya" (I'm sorry). Like its English equivalent, it is used not only in apologizing, but also when hearing bad news (such as one's interlocutor's husband passing away). "Is as shayam weviya" means "I am very sorry", and "Is as wuari we weviya" means "I am profusely sorry". To accept an apology, say, "Is nivendas ar" (I accept your apology).

    People are usually addressed by their first names in conversation or in correspondence (although they will introduce themselves with their full names). The exceptions are someone's biological mother and father, who will most often be addressed as mimi (mom) and haha (dad). If someone grows up in a polyandrous family in which she or he does not know which man is her or his biological father, she or he will refer to all the men by their first name. Even titles like Phum (Dr.) sometimes go with a first rather than last name -- similar to Dr. Phil or Judge Judy. In newspaper, magazine and journal articles, people are usually referred to on second reference by their last name only -- even for kids. The exception is when two or more siblings who share the same biological mother and father are mentioned in the same article, in which case they will be referred to with their first names, or last and first names (without the element name) upon second reference. When people are given pseudonyms in an article, however, it is usually just a first name. There is no equivalent to "Ms." or "Mr." in Kankonian; if a non-Kankonian is being referred to by surname, s/he will be given the honorific from her/his native language.

    Kankonians do not change their speech with another Kankonian based on their interlocutor's gender or age (except people will use simpler vocabulary around children, similar to the way they do with immigrants who don't speak Kankonian as a first language). Older people, even teachers, Vigilante Squadders and people at the Pandominium, do not demand more "respect" from younger speakers. Children will freely joke with and insult their parents. Women and men do have speech differences, however, based on their inherent psychological differences (with women using pronouns more often and men talking about things more often). Baby talk, more often imitating very young children than with very young children, includes a number of reduplications with shw- (such as kravishwavi for kravik, toe) based on suppositions of the way children attempt to speak (using SH and W a lot). Kankonian adults do not raise the pitches of their voices when addressing young children, however.

    When asking alternative questions, Kankonians will typically list the answer their interlocutor is "supposed to" give second/last. For instance, instead of asking, "Can we talk, or do you want to do your hair?", they'll ask, "Do you want to do your hair, or can we talk?"

    Kankonians do not have an "inside voice" and an "outside voice"; they will use whatever volume of voice occurs naturally to them at the moment, which is often quite loud. Even at a library there are no norms about keeping quiet. Obviously, however, they will whisper to keep something a secret. Kankonians also use a loud voice when speaking to someone who is way across the room, or in another room, or outside the building altogether, for the practical purposes of being heard. Their voice will get louder if it becomes apparent that someone didn't hear them. A voice may become quieter but more intense to make what is said extra dramatic. Kankonians do not believe that speaking in a louder voice will make it easier for immigrants or foreigners to understand them.

    Kankonian proxemics are a convoluted topic, as the Kankonians have no real personal space. Even in the rural regions of Kankonia, people will not step away if another person steps quite close to them. People climbing right over other people to get by is a common sight. However, people will jump farther away from their interlocutor than they currrently are to recoil in fear, and if a Kankonian person becomes angry with his interlocutor, he may step closer to her. If he is already right next to her, he may stay where he is, but he might indicate increasing anger by bumping right into her. Distance relative to where one was standing before can therefore be seen as a defining factor in Kankonian proxemics. Kankonians do not have an orientational symbolism in their communication, i.e. they do not associate having one's back turned to someone as a sign of disrespect for her/him.

    There are no taboo topics in Kankonian conversation. Death, rape, child molestation, genitalia, feces, urine, blood and murder are all openly talked about, regardless of the time, place, or station of one's interlocutor. If you ask a Kankonian what STD's he has or how much money she makes, the Kankonian will answer matter-of-factly. There are also no taboos regarding speaking to, or speaking about certain things to, a certain relative (such as a man speaking to his mother-in-law or joking with his sister).

    The Kankonians do not see much need for privacy or keeping their conversations private. Someone being offended by a comment from someone next to her while she was making a phone call would be incomprehensible to Kankonians; the Kankonians understand that by making a cellphone call right in front of another person, you forfeit your right to privacy. If a Kankonian wants to keep something a secret (for instance, she is holding a surprise party for someone and doesn't want him to find out), she will move somewhere away from him or go in a room with a white sound machine playing and lock the door. If two people are talking and a third person from whom they want to keep something secret walks by, they will simply stop talking about it. If they are concerned, one of them may ask him, "Mahan ar theshen ham?" (Did you hear that?)

    Kankonian insults include such words as karsti (idiot) and veziri (jerk). However, the Kankonians will most commonly either use a political insult, or compare a person to a nonsapient animal. Politically insulting someone includes calling him a devesis, obviously, but also dandis, from the letter dand, the first letter in "devesis". Bungksazidfash, meaning truncheon-wielder, or bungksa for short, is equivalent to "pig" and insults police officers. A synonym is varim. Heshra, from the title for the dictator of Danton, is also very insulting. These terms are equivalent to calling someone a fascist. There are also the terms hainoslass, meaning unity fetishist, and varo, meaning stability fetishist. Animal insults include ar zash phoroish vathazh (you hairy gorilla), ar zash hakuil heyapnoi (you slippery eel), ar zash matel savait (you cunning cobra), ar zash pa*aung az toetshas (you plodding snail), ar zash kluromb az klopfas (you clomping tarpan) and ar zash fermum az boervikas (you hideous tarantula) or ar zash pakadzhoma az boervikas (you hideous pakajooma). The Kankonians would find the concept of "silent treatment" incomprehensible; they believe that if you want to show someone he is beneath you, the best way to do it is to insult him.

    Letters


    A Kankonian letter has four parts. The first part is the address of the sender, written at the top. The sender's name is included before his or her address. The second part is the opener. The opener consists simply of the addressee's name (there is no word for "dear" in Kankonian) followed by two commas (the equivalent of a semicolon). The third part is the body of the letter. The fourth part is the closing. Normally this consists of the word "azilingo" (sincerely), followed by a comma, and then the sender's name on the same line. However, if a signature is included, the word "azilingo" will be followed by two commas, then room will be made for the signature, then the next line will be the sender's name.

    Every part of a Kankonian letter written left-to-right is on the left, except for the address at the top, which is left-justified but on the top right side of the page.

    Example letter:

    _____________________________________________________Adru Keziri Don
    _____________________________________________________1214 Lat na Agna
    _____________________________________________________Marsapiya 34.3199

    Sia,,

    Hai! Hiel tzenethenas hel ar mui Tom me? Emiyait ad is ireras hous ekkhi ad Gomateti azid deir ataden.

    Is itrihien a Nolata hel sayupbein zash Randra ad is niwas 5 e 10 mui 15 e 10. Mos wir en els, wir emen vugis hel bad oor pumath. Wan aspen nawetz wir av wan pteugen arig ab sto ash fega tzakava. Muye wir emen layas verimes az as sherm na yara, oor pupoa mui zamalipu. Wir ovayen sii bovokharden pupu somsum.

    Kam huwos wir nuisenen er Anshpir Anoko. Ham as durwur na anshpires tri argi er Yaras Tzelshas mui beikulsas er Atapihaki. Met az er wir nuisenen as er Vo'udzhi. Mem hiren ad wir layas stalsas Tzelshik er dazhuules na wir, goka* av dansugar akranen hes ye gaga ofas mui hhalpeo wan teyeven wan mui wan phalushizen spash soma na Randra! Wir shwanetzen uhu ad akkukhu helesit Na-Issadzhi, az er wir phoren saphavas. Az shaiyi*es os pirsenen as venit!

    Derikh wir amauren kam 15 e 10 az as senkti ad higol ad nagar. Is azfuiras az is prebetos ar kam blattreilam! Ayinet ad is woving debis.

    Azilingo, Don


    _____________________________________________________Adru Technetium Don
    _____________________________________________________1214 Agna St.
    _____________________________________________________Marsapiya 34.3199

    Dear Sia,

    Hi! What has been going on with you and Tom recently? Tell me more about the vacation to Gomateti you made.

    I traveled to Nolaata with my boyfriend Randra between 5-10 and 15-10. While we were there, we saw a shovel-headed snake. It seemed to taunt us when it stuck its tongue out from its position on the tzakava tree. We also saw a number of the birds that are native to the island, such as a pupo'a and a zamaliipu. We watched a si'i devour a delicious worm.

    At night we stayed at the Aanooko Hotel. This is the biggest hotel chain in the Tzelshas Islands, centered in Ataapihaki. The one we stayed at was in Vo'uji. They served us a number of Tzelshan dishes in our suites, although when the bellboy brought out the gaga ofos and hhalpeo, he dropped it and it spilt all over Randra's tank top! We had the joy of going to an akkukhu named Na-Issaji, whereat we got saphavas. Good thing the flames didn't spread!

    We finally came back home on 15-10, in time to go back to work. I hope to see you on the twenty-seventh! Give me a call sometime.

    Sincerely,

    Don

    Dialects


    Global Kankonian is the dialect taught to foreigners. It is characterized by pronunciation and grammar like those on this page, and by absence of dialect-specific words. It is spoken in places like Khoikal, Spanitz and Kherwudan, and is understood all over the planet.

    The Tze*ethik Language


    Tze*ethik had differences from modern Kankonian in its pronunciation, in grammar and in vocabulary.

    Pronunciation


    In pronunciation, the vowel OU was pronounced like a U with the tongue root retracted. Accent was unpredictable, and the keeping or dropping of a final vowel before a suffix is often reflected in modern words:

    thothu (tho-THU) + -i* = thothui*
    davu (DA-vu) + -is = davis

    The PH was originally a voiceless bilabial fricative (/ɸ/), like the F in Japanese "fugu". After Kerina pronounced the PH's in Phoriphio as linguolabial trills, the trend among khemehekas of pronouncing PH this way caught on. With the destruction of devesar, the taboo against breaking wind had been lifted, thus opening the door for a raspberry sound in Kankonian. It is believed the F (foyem) in Tze*ethik was pronounced unlike the F we know today (though exactly what it sounded like is a mystery), because a language with /ɸ/ would be unlikely to have another sound as well that sounded so similar to it.

    The Kankonians are proud of their linguolabial trill, and do not want to trade it for a sound simpler to say. For this reason, it has stayed stable despite its phonological complexity.

    Pronouns and verb conjugation


    Verb conjugation in Tze*ethik was a lot more complicated than in Kankonian. The following pronouns existed:

    is: I
    ar: you (masculine)
    shar: you (feminine)
    gher: he
    mil: she
    wan: it

    wit: one of us
    deyit: one of you
    met: one of them

    wir: we
    deir: you (plural)
    mem: they

    And a verb was conjugated in the present tense as follows:

    is abamu: I eat
    ar abamas: you (masculine) eat
    shar abamash: you (feminine) eat (When addressing a plant or lifeless object, people would choose "ar" or "shar" at a whim.)
    gher abameth: he eats
    mil abamal: she eats
    wan abamiv: it eats

    wit abamit: one of us eats
    deyit abamout: one of you (an all-male group) eats
    deyit abamit: one of you (an all-female group) eats
    met abamat: one of them eats

    wir abamind: we eat
    deir abamous: you (all male or mixed) eat
    deir abamish: you (all female) eat
    mem abamar: they (all male, mixed or inanimate) eat
    mem abamas: they (all female) eat

    A verb in the past tense looked like this:

    is abamib: I ate
    ar abamod: you (masculine) ate
    shar abamot: you (feminine) ate
    gher abamif: he ate
    mil abamai: she ate
    wan abamen: it ate

    wit abamot: one of us ate
    deyit abamot: one of you (an all-male group) ate
    deyit abamet: one of you (an all-female group) ate
    met abamet: one of them ate

    wir abamond: we ate
    deir abamor: you (all male or mixed) ate
    deir abamesh: you (all female) ate
    mem abamand: they (all male, mixed or inanimate) ate
    mem abamend: they (all female) ate

    And a verb in the future tense looked like this:

    is abamos: I will eat
    ar abamos: you (masculine) will eat
    shar abamosh: you (feminine) will eat
    gher abamoth: he will eat
    mil abamol: she will eat
    wan abamon: it will eat

    wit abamosit: one of us will eat
    deyit abamosout: one of you (an all-male group) will eat
    deyit abamosit: one of you (an all-female group) will eat
    met abamosat: one of them will eat

    wir abamosind: we will eat
    deir abamosous: you (all male or mixed) will eat
    deir abamosish: you (all female) will eat
    mem abamosar: they (all male, mixed or inanimate) will eat
    mem abamosas: they (all female) will eat

    Around the year 400, verbs started conjugating to show caste. The singular present tense looked like this:

    is abamu: I eat
    ar abamas: you (masculine, emperor or second-caste) eat
    shar abamash: you (feminine, second-caste) eat
    ar abamath: you (masculine, third-caste) eat
    shar abamarth: you (feminine, third-caste) eat
    ar abama*: you (masculine, hazhu*) eat
    shar abama*: you (feminine, hazhu*) eat
    gher abameth: he (emperor or second-caste) eats
    mil abamal: she (second-caste) eats
    gher abamekh: he (third-caste) eats
    mil abamakh: she (third-caste) eats
    gher abame*: he (hazhu*) eats
    mil abama*: she (hazhu*) eats
    wan abamiv: it eats

    Around 600, ara (subcaste) crept in, so that a male over about 25 would be addressed with "ar abamayas" (you eat), while a male under about 25 would be "ar abamuas" (you eat). The -ay- and -u- (as in the words "bahai" and "bulush") were inserted for older or younger people before the person/gender/tense suffix in the singular. People were expected to know all the forms by the time they turned 16.

    Around 850, masculine singular forms began to reflect shegeri. "He eats" for a third-caste older male with a high shegeri would be "gher abamayekh-mes", while for a third-caste male with a medium-level shegeri it would be "gher abamayekh-dam", and for a third-caste male with low shegeri it would be "gher abamayekh-lus". There are even records of such gradations as "abamayekh-dam-mes" and "abamayekh-lus-dam".

    Eventually the forms became too complicated to remember, and, with the arrival of the khemehekas, they collapsed into the verbs and pronouns we have today.

    Plurals


    Nouns started out with no singular/plural distinction. Around -2500, shortly after the language began to be written down in its own alphabet, the singular/plural distinction was made. When the distinction first became used, there were some nouns (bwolwu, garakhien, surtei, zherdu, zwanzu) that were plural only, and singulars for them were invented. Other irregular plurals included:

    gumu - gumu
    khod - khodu
    meimas - meimu
    noto - notu
    pumus - pumu
    zanzo - zanzu

    Some of the irregular plurals survived, but those listed directly above did not. Shortly after the singular/plural distinction appeared, excerptal nouns began to make their way into the language, modeling themselves after the -t endings of the excerptal pronouns which were already in use. "Babi" (sausage) took the plural "babitos", as distinguishing it from "babas" (concussions) was found to be useful. "Anthoi" never gained a singular/plural distinction.

    When plurals and excerptals were first used, adjectives inflected to agree with nominals in number, so that "the brown monkey" was "zatura blan", "the brown monkeys" was "zaturas blanes" and "one of the brown monkeys" was "zaturat blanet". This went into disuse when the age of modern Kankonian dawned.

    Vocabulary


    Many words now replaced by borrowings from other planets or modern coinages like "estemyulis" existed in Tze*ethik: phopherent (order, now tsha), estid (chaos, now tshoi), amfun (country, nation, now poilang) gaparin (prostitute, now estemyulis), bmoth (beard, now iaskar). Many of these were deliberately changed by the khemehekas. "Bmoth", for instance, had become much used in swearing since beards had gained a dirty reputation of late among the devesis community, so a word of the Chatonians was borrowed in its place.

    The word for first was originally "stap". It later became "inam" to become more regular, going along with "bamam", "emam", "holam", etc.

    Sometimes archaic words would leave their mark on the language. When "hoth" (alive) became driven out by "semesh", for instance, it survived in the word "hothos" (life).

    Appositives


    Appositives were originally formed by "az" and the appropriate form of to be: "az eth" for men, "az al" for women, "az iv" for things. After all the present-tense forms of the copula simplified into "as", people started using "az as". Around 1500, "az as" fused into "zash".

    Suffixes


    The agent ending was originally -fazis, formed by "faz", to do, and the personal suffix -is. The plural was -fazas and the excerptal -fazat. Around 1500, the ending was corrupted into -fash, so "torturfazis" became "torturfash", and -fashes and -fashet became the new plural and excerptal endings.

    The honorific o-


    The prefix o- could be added before a Tze*ethik word to give the impression that it, he or she was honorable or particularly worthy of respect. "Veksas" (basket), for instance, could become "oveksas". "Owiri" was often heard for gentleman and "omopiga" for lady. These two are still used ("omopiga" now as "ompiga"), but have a connotation of extreme gentility and are not exactly complimentary. The phrase "oyeas na oteinarevor" (soups of the emperor) was routinely used to refer to the lavish soups prepared for the emperor of the Hegheosik Empire on 5-7, Feast of the Soups. The word "soups" was not used much otherwise, so "oyeas" survives as the plural of "yea" to this day.

    Profanity


    The name of God (Leho) was often used in mild swearing, to denote being taken aback, being overwhelmed or sometimes just a situation where one would want to roll his or her eyes. "Hashu Leho" was one commonly used phrase, meaning "Oh no, God!", that expressed dread. "Leho esid!" (real God!) was similar to saying "Oh my god!" The minced oaths "legho" and "lekh" were often used in its place. Expressions like "hashu Leho" and "Leho esid!" were considered mildly taboo because Kankonians believed that people should not take Leho's name in vain.

    Guzhud (the name of the Hazumi concept of Hell) was considered a much stronger word when used in its non-literal sense, but "polite" people used "guzukh" instead. It was often equivalent to the adverbial use of "wicked", so that "Guzhud dani" meant "wicked cool".

    A less expected word used in cursing was "thevatz", the Kankonian word for "to torture". "Leho thevatzet ar" meant "May God torture you!", while "Thevatzizet er Guzhud!" meant "Be tortured in Hell!" "Thevatzet Dana!" meant "Damn Dana!" or "Screw Dana!" "Thevatzet zhigher!" meant "May [God] damn Himself!" and was one of the rudest things you could say in Tze*ethik. The minced oaths were "Febasedark!", "Febaset Dana!" and "Thevisitzgheb!" "Zab" is also used to this day as an equivalent to "damn" or "damn it".

    The lower body was also an inspiration for profanity. The most commonly used such word was "etil", the Kankonian word for the penis. Something that was "etili" was considered to be sucky (similar to "khatz" today), so that "Ham iv etili" meant "That sucks". "Etil ad" meant "sucks to", so that "Etil ad teinarevor!" meant "Sucks to the emperor!" A person could also be insulted by being called an "etil". "Edil", or, more subtly, "efil" were often used as minced oaths for this.

    "Sokh" (testicle) could be used in swearing, so that "e sokhet na is" (in my testicle) was similar to "My ass!" or "My eye!" "Bad-sokh" (testicle-head) was an insulting name for a person. Similar was "sakhu", the word for semen, which was shouted out when things went wrong. "Baphash na sakhu na ar/shar" (enough of your semen) meant that you were tired of another person's lies or games, similar to "bullshit". "Zog" could replace "sokh" and "zagu" could replace "sakhu".

    "Ziv" was an archaic word for the vagina, and calling a woman a "ziv" was equivalent to calling her a bitch. "Mopiga-ziv" meant "whore". There were no euphemisms known for these terms.

    "Bmoth", which meant "beard", was used in such constructions as "E bmoth na ar!" (In your beard!), similar to saying "Screw you!" "Falskiet bmoth na ar mer wan!", or "Wrap your beard around it", meant "Put that in your pipe and smoke it!" "Bmothet ham!" meant "Suck on that!" "Mil anal bmoth" (or even "Mil aneth bmoth", using the masculine form of "have") meant "She has a beard" and was a way of accusing a woman of being a lesbian, something taboo in those days. "Bmosh" was used euphemistically.

    As the days of taboos were numbered during the khemehekis/devesis wars, these words (most of them, at least) lost their taboo and became an everyday part of the language. Many of the minced oaths from the days of Tze*ethik survive to this day, as they had become so ingrained in the language, and most people are unaware of their origins.

    Borrowings


    Many of the words are native to Kankonian, including most of the most common, essential ones -- the words for day and night, in and out, when and here, man and woman, live and eat, I and you. Other tribal languages that once existed before being exterminated on this planet contributed words for local plant and animal species, with a few other borrowings from the classical languages such as phaselen, dankhupiss, dyebnakh, sephardim and aktash (Ciladian), vonisi keti and poergoi (Povoian) and pastet (Mophasian). Other planets have made their own contributions: from Mensinghi are poilang, wiwang, tratua, hwang, hwangkuli, dzhwatoi and utoi; from Earth paund, graund, beisbal, hip-hap and peyote; from Schaza imatzehib, tzin, ethesino, iashan, shasada, basotla, khama, syukass, piledoimau and iukwat; from Chatony amingi, remiding, Lahu, iaskar, ang oi, tshoi, tsha, mekkhak and vening; from Kwemos baka, abalaka, eyi*i, gukpal, gobisalitla and *upu*;from Shaleya anayal, phelus, khemehek, dalek, dekahin, dashayal, meshiya, halasadukhul, dephudan, onyepanyemi and ash; from Tenta bein, piva and sankatsho; from Kebsabhaz savalya, kagar minyes, khamash, tisenya dakhav and varakh nisep; from Saros khetef, bazap, pavis, dahef, khap oleph and khap dif husapim; from Javarti silti, natilkha, khendigobisutu, zdeduli and zhudalamelka; from Bodus malas, nekas du taras and bodan; from Bt!a lut, moerg, doern, khoerphoerp, poert-hh, sthe and shoerhhe; from Danton khunaran and asaghim; and from Cetonia mawuima, Huiwui, Oo-uma, maoho, hoo-u and hoo-uwa. Words can come from far-out and unlikely places; korimboga, for instance, comes from the country of Spepele on Junsu, where the ahi tuna is native. Some other Kankonian words are eponyms, such as ratzeyinti (from the cannibalistic Ratzeyinta tribe), sese (from physician Sese Aluminum Mark), huir (from physician Huir Gadolinium Atusa) and hoto (from Hoto, the amateur pilot of thirteenth-century Kankonia).

    Phonaesthesia


    Native Kankonian words reflect their meaning in their sounds; the phonemes are symbolic. As the ancient philosopher Khardas wrote about the word "phizur" (to sleep): "The PH represents an exhaustion, the blowing of the lips as when one has just been overwhelmed or finished a long and hard day, that precedes sleep; the I represents a prolonged dream, as if pulled out; the Z the otherworldliness of when you are in a dream; the U the coldness and darkness of the night in which you sleep; and the R the vibrations in the mouth when snoring". Such words as "wakhir" (to drink), "bwolwu" (eyes), "ne*et" (nose), "mopiga" (woman), "hilis" (yellow), "karak" (black), "kokok" (jet black or anus) and "shoip" (tomato or pulse) also have a clear resemblance to their meaning that comes from a sum of the phonaesthetic parts. This method is used to this day to form new words, such as "phwash" (windshield wiper).

    Metaphors and Metonymies


    Fire for rage:
    luoikashos (fire-mind): soul filled with rage
    tzefratzeo hel tsheleges (rage with embers): towering rage
    skyarath (oily rag): a response to an angry person's rage that only makes her/him even angrier
    nati ab sedel (made of asbestos): unable to get angry
    eshampa lishuwis (to play firefighter): to calm someone down

    Water for sadness:
    paplos na buito (swimming pool scene): sad scene
    iyes na wana (water story): sob story
    ophuv (to drown): to be very sad
    koriuv (to dry up): to cheer up
    shwatz (rainbow): the happy feeling one gets after recovering from a bout of depression

    Seizures for fear:
    e tzezodoni (to be epileptic): to be phobic
    maikros na patlaizi (seizure film): horror movie
    ash adul (on the floor): gripped/paralyzed by fear
    hohokh (grandma seizure): panic

    Light for love:
    laimiz (sunny): filled with love
    heles na oshmul na o (sun in one's sky): love of one's life
    an nos helesyahal e kumes (to have no sunlight in one's room): to have no heart
    hami shiyimes ad (to make sunbeams at): to flirt with
    noto ad heles (child of the sun): hopeless romantic
    e kar ad (to be dark for): to hate

    Burning for oppression:
    helskendiz (to brand): to stomp on the face of
    hel khazides na goilupi (with marks from an iron): downtrodden
    papas pai luoi (to lead into the fire): to walk all over
    rebretzin (to abacinate): to crucify

    Heat for adversity:
    ihem tziyimov (to face the heat): to face it down
    tze*eth (desert): hostile place
    shewadar (oasis): silver lining
    adkurush (to cool off): to unwind
    usfwiva wuari we (to sweat profusely): to be drenched in pain

    A year for life (emenos):
    havarmi *ayani (to anticipate spring): to be expecting
    veletom na *ayani (vernal equinox): blessed (birth)
    *aizi dayarom natzopu (witness/undergo the summer solstice): to come of age
    veletom namorov (autumnal equinox): beginning of midlife
    morov na emenos (autumn of life): midlife
    shehe* na morov (fall of autumn): midlife crisis
    arat haphlaphes (to lose one's leaves): to grow old
    fega kam seldu (tree in winter): elderly frame
    ufoyan she mesemiwa (change as of the weather): life change
    gestang na dayarom (solstice holiday): rite of passage

    Hearts for life (hothos):
    zav tzazhur na (to stab the heart of): to murder
    akran tzazhur (to take a heart): to take a life
    an nos bomb (to have no heartbeat): to be dead
    bam bombes (two heartbeats): two separate living souls
    meya-tzazhur (heart-person): living soul

    Moving for effort:
    euer gumas na o (to move one's feet): to get cracking
    euer khogad (to move a boulder): to try very hard
    Ar tzoyas radhat we! (You're sitting still!): You're not trying!
    eueralieuer (move-rest-move): half-hearted, half-assed
    euer bayis (to move the world): to give it one's all

    Blood for being exciting and interesting:
    shedid rivas (to add blood): to be refreshing
    ayin rivas ash (to give blood to): to spice up
    rivas-hothos (lifeblood): spice of life
    oelrivi (anemic): bland
    omen gudum (red face): interesting personality
    ayin *eski na rivas ad (to give a blood transfusion to): to save from blandness
    usrivas wuari we (to bleed profusely): to be an artistic masterpiece
    Rivas zeshsumen ad bad na is (The blood rushed to my head): Inspiration came to me

    Chickens and eggs for sex and reproduction:
    ekseti kehas (to lay eggs): to start a family
    woaka opomyali (parthenogenetic hen): independent woman
    pavarvo na *evria (rooster of the barnyard): alpha male
    nabkehi (dud-egg): stillborn child

    Multiple births for companionship:
    zeratzen kam nam blahatz (to be born on the same day): to be peas in a pod
    oor bamas nam*aitzarti (like identical twins): best friends
    faz oelbamis (to do [something] without a twin): to go it alone
    Mem as bamas tamgib (They're conjoined twins): They're inseparable
    pad na furas (set of octuplets): crowd

    House for country:
    zaso shakti (to run the house): to govern the country
    adhashar shakti (to clean house): to fix the nation's problems
    sokamis (architect): statesman
    behadet (to trespass): to immigrate illegally

    Shirts for reputation and stains for blemishing:
    hel nephus shtar (with a fine shirt): well-respected
    envwetz nephus na helemas/hoimas ad o (to wear one's mother's/father's shirt): to ride on the reputation of one's mother/father
    nephus kiul (white shirt): squeaky-clean reputation
    eivdewith nephus na (to stain the shirt of): to tarnish the reputation of
    furst nephus na Dan zipi kmedu (to drag Dan's shirt through the mud): to drag Dan's name in the mud
    yevdua rahat (orange stain): black mark
    ploshes mui hales (spots and all): warts and all
    Yevdua ogaudas ush (The stain won't come out): I'm a prisoner to an incident in my past that has permanently hurt my reputation

    Jellyfish for freedom:
    hasusadobethani (jellyfish-floating): freewheeling
    kobis (polyp): caged bird
    wahatasa (medusa): free man
    marb ab kobis ad wahatasa (to go from a polyp to a medusa): to become emancipated
    seres kobis ash kmatar (to keep a polyp on the ocean floor): to be ageist

    Ketchup for blood and bloodshed:
    phalush id tzeyup (spilling of ketchup): bloodshed
    tzeyupi (ketchupy): murderous
    paplos na tzeyup (ketchup scene): violent scene
    korukas na tzeyup (ketchup letters): suicide note
    oeltzeyup (ketchupless): bloodless

    Gonads for sex:
    ayin oopas/sokhes ad (to give ovaries/testicles to): to have sex with
    mopiga-oopo (ovary-woman): prostitute
    wiri-sokh (testicle-man): pimp
    she oopas/sokhes (in terms of ovaries/testicles): in bed
    vainatzoopi/vainatzsokhi (free-ovaried/free-testicled): sexually liberated
    sokh sheiz (fast testicle): quickie

    Metal for money:
    lataz (metallic): lucrative
    abam mui weishan lataz (to eat and breathe metal): to be made out of money
    an phutelo wetzan na lataz (to have a stomach full of metal): to be rich
    mehim medozhod (to wear braces): to have money readily available
    hel lataz vin (with thin metal): on a tight budget
    yukhonzes vainatz (free nuggets): loose change
    moyet prou blintz (scheme after silver): get-rich-quick scheme

    Origins


    How a language isolate like Tze*ethik with vocabulary based on phonaesthesia came to be on the continent of Hegheos has long been a mystery to Kankonians.

    The most prominent theory was first proposed by Home Magnesium Hhepia. The Seafaring Theory holds that it started with contact between the Traptos and an unknown seafaring people. It is believed that the Tze*ethik language was created as a creole, relexing the grammar of Traptos. The vocabulary may have come from the mysterious sailors who made contact with the Traptos. Traptos documents record many contacts with sailing peoples the names of which appear only in a few Traptos documents, and the grammar of Tze*ethik was nearly identical to the grammar of Traptos. Such artifacts as sculptures of nesikar, swords with winged hilts and big-eyed statues of people are found in artifacts from the Pikutlik ocean, and are also found in the Traptos civilization. The genes of people who trace their ancestry to the Traptos are also similar to the genes of those tracing their ancestry to the Tze*ethiks, and it is generally accepted that a band of Traptos migrated and became Tze*ethik. Some linguists believe that the seafaring people and the Traptos may have coined a priori vocabulary when creating Tze*ethik.

    An alternative theory is proposed by Emsi Dysprosium Shanas. Emsi holds that Kankonian/Tze*ethik is actually a Ktibagik-Athrozold language. This is based on such Ktibagik/Tze*ethik apparent cognates as kelo/hilis (yellow), tebu/dzipu (nit/louse), kali/heles (sun), nen/*ini (dead) and khwoum/gumu (leg/foot). Recurring correspondences, such as Ktibagik K with Tze*ethik H, or Ktibagik N with Kankonian *, are pointed out. Skeptics consider these to be mere coincidences. Variations on the theory, which many consider to be improvements, include that the Ktibagik language was used as the lexifier in creating a relex of Traptos; that the seafaring people spoke a Ktibagik-Athrozold language; or that Tze*ethold languages and the Ktibagik-Athrozold language phylum, judging by the roots in the proto-languages, are actually part of a macro-phylum of languages called the Shuyes-hegheosold languages.

    Literature


    Much of the first literature on Kankonia was mythology. Prior to the year 1, literature is known mostly from Ciladia (and such nearby places as Mophasia) and the early, pre-empire Tze*ethik civilization. A popular genre in early Ciladia was the ekpasar, a dull genre of linear stories meant to tell to children that vividly described an action increasing in intensity until the very end. As the Ciladian civilization matured, plays became popular. Ciladian playwrights gave us such plays as "Semat's House", a comedy by Kephalen with camaraderie and drunken revelry and "Sitting Around the Water", a story of some philosophers by Gekemas. The Ciladian tradition of writing plays spread to Mophasia, where "Mak-hhariz", a play about a peripatetic hunter and fur trader and the people he encounters, was written; it is considered to be the premiere work written in the Mophasian language. Popular to this day is "Stories of the Cave", a Ciladian collection of stories. It is set within the frame story of Kulesab, a student who turns in a story that the teacher insists is plagiarized, his reasoning being that it is too good to have been written by a mere 7-year-old. To prove that Kulesab really does have a talent at making stories, the schoolmaster keeps him in a cave and gives him several elements (such as a doctor, a stew and the sand dunes of Durben) and has him spin a story out of them. After several assignments and the delightful stories that come out of them, the schoolmaster and teacher are convinced Kulesab is a real raconteur.

    The hero epic endured as a genre in the ancient civilizations. The Ciladians had the story of Ubatesh, who saved the Ciladian army from outside threats, both human and supernatural, innumerable times. Tze*ethia had Kaghovar, best remembered for fighting a monster with a septillion heads. Amadia had the epic of Lyepomon, who was born half angel. Across the ocean, the Povoians developed the fantastic tale of Soigöv, who was eaten by a bapra (human-eating sand monster) and visited the underworld, then came back to the overworld.

    The tradition of writing plays and poetry spread from Ciladia to Tze*ethia, where the early popularity of "Standing in Ktibagu", Makhamos' comedy about crazy lovers living in the ancient city-state, proved the viability of the genre in Tze*ethia. Other Tze*ethik critics, such as Nakhass and Hezharm, preferred serious pieces like Drenaz's "Kabasenar", the tragedy of a Ciladian king. The immensely popular Tze*ethik play "Demila and San", by the female playwright Vandi, told the tragic love story of a girl named Demila and a boy named San, who are recognized as the archetypal romantic couple in literature. In -384 Kmashand, author of "The Roses", "Kalvar's Spring" and "Takeleth", influenced the direction of Kankonian drama when he argued that every play should reveal something about human nature. Kmashand influenced Luesi's cynical "Garden of Khensil", which made the case that when forced to choose between love and fortune, Man will choose fortune. Despite its downbeat message, it remains one of the best-known works in the Kankonian language today. Immensely popular to this day for its politically incorrect humor, "Intestines of the Duck" makes fun of the Renshans and their worship of Ravathegh. The ultimate work of the ancient Tze*ethiks is the Tzalath, a tome that to this day is considered holy by Hazumis, Rasaphis and Musefis alike.

    After the empire began, literature on Hegheos largely went out of fashion. Writers put their energy into making kamandra scrolls and textbooks. In the seventh century, however, fantasy stories began to come into fashion. Stories about ptorts, dragons, unicorns, buhangems and naxibus were written. "Sogolas", a novel by Thavanda about a vampire, was written during this period. One story well known from this age is "Andy the Anthoi", often used now to teach Kankonian to outsiders. "Keri and Sisela", a novel by Udzhark about the unfaithful wife of a pavwazh, reflected the mood of the empire days.

    When the khemehekas first became a force to be reckoned with, the use of psychedelic drugs had a tremendous influence on literature. Kaimul az As Tethesfash's (Kaimul the Slayer's) novel "Candy Sight" started off a string of trippy works, such as Dzhasandra's "Walls Around Me", Faradar's "The Sun Slowly Melts", Laima's "Mango Arrowhead" and Yeshiki Lani's "Being Eaten". "From the Cage Out", by Nobera, told the story of life inside an attic. Pak Gordon's "Fading by the Railroad" was the last major work before the devesas disappeared from the planet.

    Around 1500, literature came back into fashion. Zele Stannum Shaniya started the trend in 1514 with "Heights of the Cypresses", a steamy romance novel. Anka Cadmium Sadu popularized writing about other planets with "Burning of the Dragon", a story of war and betrayal set on Kwemos. Late in the sixteenth century there was a fad in which circles of people would sit around and read Geshi Antimony Kem's "Wife and Dowager", a long novel about the day-to-day adventures of a gossipy woman throughout her life that started off the popularity of reading in groups. People read the often bubblegummy novels that were put out that day together throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

    The next major era in literature began around 2350, when the novelist Larou Erbium Frantz, who put out such novels as "Khasan", "Reasons" and "Standing by the Ash Trees", called for a return of the classics. Novels and plays that imitated the style, themes and traditional setting of ancient Ciladian and Tze*ethik works became a new craze across Kankonia. Critics to this day point to Nuba Californium Sean's "Honey and Raspberry Wine", a tragic play set in the deciduous forests of old Hegheos, and Anizh Copper Anev's "The Bat at My Door", a novel about an old man dealing with death, as examples of excellence in the "nouveau ancien" genre.

    In the twenty-eighth century, the modern age of Kankonian fiction dawned. One influence was the literary expert Hesa Osmium Hela, who opined that the characters in fiction should be a mix of good traits and bad traits, being as lifelike as possible. Her thinking introduced a rash of novels and plays that were character-centered, rather than plot-centered: "Eksela" by Roza Manganese Idris, "Wanda" by Bioert Phosphorus Krevi and "The Explorer" by Phaza Indium Mokha. Meanwhile, theme-centered stories, such as Wada Aurelium Shakru's "Holes in the Tunnel", remained popular.

    Works published since that are considered classics include "Remorse", a novel about a serial killer by Tipi Dysprosium Len; "A Dance in the Garden", a romance novel told from two points of view by Sari Sodium Magaz; "Emi's House", a play by Tegi Arsenic Yanda dealing with life after a divorce; "Shesi", a war novel by Hefe Ferrum Donnie; "The Spleen of What Is Sour", a novel by Tzera Uranium Paul about a man questioning his membership in the Vigilante Squad; "The Bezist Comes Back", a novel about a suicide by Kasi Hydrogen Rak; "The Moons of Logosa" by Zhoid Neon Kastar, the "king of science fiction"; "The Man Who Evaporated Himself", another science-fiction novel by Gari Lanthanum Khamus about a man driven to insanity by being stranded on a foreign planet; "Twenty Sunsets", a play by Naen Oxygen Zando about clinical depression and drug use; and "The Elephant Returns to Dust", a play about daily life in the streets of Dumang by Oshme Potassium Brani. Of perennial interest is the epic fantasy "Honor Below the Lint", a 4867 Boez Ytterbium Kesi novel based on the hero myths and most fantastic literature of the ancient days, filled with betrayal, evil, love lost and regained and heroism, set in the fictional land of Omaskhan.

    Around 5500, literature on Kankonia took a postmodern turn. Entire novels, for the first time, were often composed simply as a series of sensations. Influence from Shaleyan and Bodusian literature gave an alternatingly spiritual and apathetically non-human feel to literature. Other pieces of literature written since can only be understood with the help of psychotropic drugs during the reading experience. When the effect of the drugs wears off, the reader takes some more of the drug and resumes reading. Literature in this vein (whether that vein is filled with heroin or something else) includes "Help Two" by Pare Argon Dan, "Karana" by Ghoda Samarium Lisa, "I'm Paul" by Suno Phosphorus Paul, "A Visit to the King" by Uzba Rhenium Lara, "Computer Science" by Doshi Hydrogen Sharos, "Two Silences" by Loep Argentum Mendri, "Black Orchid" by Aral Titanium Raza, "The Blue Nebula" and "To Be Taken Inside the Lung" by Shoan Nitrogen Thandra, "Laikwein" by Torami, and "The Souls Inside the Praying Mantis" by Yole Zinc Dark.

    Popular authors today include Lami Neptunium Maureen, a stream-of-consciousness author; Paez Meitnerium Asal, a psychedelic writer in the tradition of Kaimul zash Tethesfash; Zhaem Germanium Veni, who writes science fiction; Ermi Scandium Gokan, an off-the-wall playwright; Nebu Potassium Gary, who writes stories of war set on other planets; Lima Neon Dabi, a writer of bloody murder and crime fiction; Sapo Lithium Ani, an author of romances between two well-developed characters; Ozik Mendelevium Lori, who writes lesbian romances; Haing Carbon Darm, who writes humorous novels; Mene Tungsten Sharma, a graphic novel writer; and Mano Stannum Hairi, who writes epic fantasy stories set in galaxies far away from Lehola or other known galaxies, most notably the Red Veil series.

    Popular poets include Sakhawas, Imadari, Zauthin, Vundi, Zhani of Dhalatz, Elek Dysprosium Gana, Sedi Arsenic Bokhra, Meeth Ununpentium Abra, Kolo Meitnerium Rahend, Sapa Indium Helesh, Tepo Xenon Gedam, File Ferrum Thayana and Ghezhu Platinum Nashisha.

    One Kankonian form of poetry is the philhigolfash. ("Phil" is the Ciladian word for eight, and "higol" means to return, so: eight-returner.) The first line has eight syllables; the next six lines have sixteen syllables each; and the number of syllables returns to eight in the last line:

    Av mimi hesias ad is
    Wan rezimas openg wan im waherar fuiras trisha* fas
    Fas azid wir hauesen spyu zhiwir mos gotapis na is
    Rei wir ailisen kalui, am rei argas insitz aen

    Umbe is payoas hous blatzas azid wan fuiras trisha*
    Yerat is dash kashositrihias shemebetes na foerd
    Na gasi bulush ye ad dege id em id omen na wan
    Er mimi fuiras e meshas?


    Translation:

    When Mom speaks to me
    She sounds as if she wants frettingly to bring something back
    Something we knew between us during my childhood
    Then we lived together, but then there was much conflict

    Now I think about the days she wants to bring back
    Immediately I just think back to the power relationships
    Of looking down to avoid seeing her face
    Why does Mom want to be my friend?

    (In the above poem, "fuiras" is pronounced as two syllables, and "na is" as two separate syllables.)

    A palindromic poem, or palindroem (tesasuya in Kankonian), is a poem in which the first line is the same as the last line, the second line is the same as the penultimate line, the third line is the same as the antepenultimate line, and so on. Palindroems may either have an odd number of lines (with one line in the center) or an even number of lines (with one line twice in a row). Here is an odd-lined palindroem:

    Is heyess ovai id ayames er lates
    Ayam huwos kuduas ash phukadri mos meshas kernan
    Khil is ayames as haug
    Is novoss khil ayam mos wan hushupas ab ratem
    Khil is ayames as haug
    Ayam huwos kuduas ash phukadri mos meshas kernan
    Is heyess ovai id ayames er lates


    Translation:

    I like watching owls on the streets
    A barn owl perches on a phykadri, looking stern
    Catching owls is fun
    I try to catch the owl as it swoops down from the ratem
    Catching owls is fun
    A barn owl perches on a phykadri, looking stern
    I like watching owls on the streets

    Gestures


    Briefly lifting the head to the top, with the Adam's apple clearly seen, indicates an answer of yes (the haiyi). Briefly lowering the head, reaching the chin to the neck, indicates no (the baki). The display of the palm is a greeting. To tell a person or animal to come here, stick out the index finger of one hand, with the hand pulled out some distance from the body, and move the hand towards the chest. A cupped hand with the concavity on top indicates that you like something; turned upside-down it indicates that you dislike something. The placement of a fist behind the derrière is a clue that someone needs to use the restroom. When you alternatingly move one fist above and back on top of the other, you are pantomiming smoking on a bong and mean that someone must be on drugs ("smoking something"). Pulling the fist up as if pulling on a string means peace. Forming the hand into a shape of a hole (the Japanese "money" sign) is asking for the time. To indicate that you are doing well, point one index finger to the sky; to indicate that you are doing badly, point one index finger to the ground. Forming the hand into the shape of the letter dand stands for "devesis", and is used for foreign enemies (such as the Dantonese and Kebsabhazians) who are perceived as being conservative.

    Click here for a classification of all the languages of Kankonia.



    Click here to learn more about the Lehola galaxy as a whole.

    Kankonian - English

    A B D E F G H I K L * M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

    English - Kankonian

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    This page courtesy of James Landau. Write to him here.